This page was last modified on 23 December 2016, at 11:09.

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

The main legal basis for the school education and higher education systems is provided by the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. Its provisions referring to fundamental freedoms and citizens' rights state that:

  • every person has the right to education; education is compulsory until the age of 18;
  • education in public schools is free of charge; an Act of Parliament may allow public higher education institutions (HEIs) to charge fees for providing educational services;
  • parents are free to choose schools other than public for their children; citizens and institutions have the right to establish schools and HEIs;
  • public authorities provide citizens with general and equal access to education; towards this end, they establish and support individual financial and organisational support systems for pupils and students; the autonomy of HEIs is ensured in accordance with the principles laid down in an Act of Parliament.

The education system is divided into school education (all education levels below the level of higher education) and higher education.

The school education system (as of November 2016) is based on the following legislation:

  • School Education Act of 7 September 1991 (with further amendments)
  • Act of 8 January 1999 on the Implementation of the Education System Reform (with further amendments)
  • Act of 26 January 1982, The Teachers’ Charter (with further amendments).

In particular, the school education system should:

  • ensure that each citizen may exercise their right to education, and that children and young people may exercise their right to education and care;
  • support the family’s educational role;
  • enable various entities to establish and administer schools and other educational institutions;
  • adjust education to pupils’ psychological and physical abilities;
  • enable disabled and socially maladjusted children and youth to receive education;
  • provide care for particularly gifted pupils through individualised curricula and arrangements enabling them to complete education within a shorter period of time;
  • ensure wide access to schools where the completion of programmes enables students to take up study in higher education;
  • provide opportunities for adults to supplement their general education, acquire or change professional and specialist qualifications;
  • reduce educational inequalities between regions of the country, and especially between urban and rural areas;
  • ensure safety and hygiene for pupils and students;
  • promote principles of sustainable development;
  • provide care for pupils facing a difficult financial situation or other difficult situations in their life;
  • adjust education to labour market needs;
  • promote entrepreneurial attitude among pupils.;
  • prepare pupils and students for the choice of career and area of study;
  • provide conditions for developing pupils’ interests and talents by organising extra-curricular and after-school activities;
  • educate children and young people about personal safety and teach them proper attitude in case of danger or emergency.

The School Education Act defines key principles for the following areas:

  • division of powers and responsibilities in the management of public schools and other educational institutions at central, regional and local levels, and rights of school heads, teachers, pupils and parents;
  • establishment and administration of non-public schools, and the financing of public and non-public schools and institutions;
  • participation in full-time and part-time compulsory education;
  • recruitment to public schools and institutions;
  • organisation of education in public schools and institutions;
  • assessment, classification and promotion of pupils in public schools;
  • external examination system;
  • educational supervision;
  • access to free textbooks;
  • education for pupils with special educational needs (SEN);
  • continuing education for adults;
  • establishment of initial and in-service teacher training institutions;
  • financial support for pupils/students.

The higher education system in Poland is regulated by the following basic legislation:

  • Act of 27 July 2005, The Law on Higher Education (Journal of Law 2005, No. 164, item 1365)
  • Act of 14 March 2003 on the Academic Degrees and Title, and on the Degrees and the Title in the field of Art (Journal of Law 2003, No. 65, item 595)
  • Act of 17 July 1998 on Student Loans and Credits (Journal of Law 1998, No. 108, item 685)
  • Act of 30 April 2010, Provisions introducing Acts reforming the scientific research system (Journal of Law 201, No. 96, item 620)
  • Act of 30 April 2010 on the rules for the financing of scientific research (Journal of Law 2010, No. 96, item 615)
  • Act of 30 April 2010 on the National Centre for Research and Development (Journal of Law 2010, No. 96, item 616)
  • Act of 30 April 2010 on the National Science Centre (Journal of Law 2010, No. 96, item 617)
  • Act of 22 December 2015 on the Integrated Qualifications System (Journal of Law 2016, item 64)
  • Act of 22 December 2015 on the rules of recognition of professional qualifications acquired in Member States of the European Union (Journal of Law 2016, item 65).

The following fundamental principles for HEIs are laid down by the Law on Higher Education:

  • HEIs are autonomous in all areas of their activity.
  • Activities of HEIs are governed by the principles of freedom of teaching, freedom of research and freedom of artistic creativity.
  • In fulfilling their mission of discovering and conveying the truth through the conduct of research and the teaching of students, HEIs constitute an integral part of the national education and research system.
  • HEIs co-operate with the socio-economic environment, in particular in the area of research and development for economic stakeholders, through separate forms of activity, including the establishment of special purpose vehicles (SPV), and also through the participation of employers in the development of study programmes and the teaching process.
  • Central government administration and local government bodies may take decisions concerning HEIs only in cases provided for in Acts of Parliament.

In particular, an HEI has the right to:

  • conduct research and development (R&D) projects and define their goals;
  • co-operate with other academic units, including international ones, in the field of R&D, on the basis of agreements aimed at raising funding and commercialisation of research results, and at supporting researchers’ mobility;
  • support R&D conducted by junior researchers;
  • provide first-, second- and long-cycle programmes and doctoral programmes according to the type of authorisation granted; this includes:
    • defining admission conditions and procedures, including the number of places available to students, except in medicine and dentistry insofar as admission in these fields is regulated by legislation;
    • developing study programmes and curricula, based on learning outcomes defined in the National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education, with respect to the academic areas specified in legislation;
  • provide non-degree post-graduate programmes and in-service training courses;
  • award diplomas confirming professional titles (degrees) and certificates confirming the completion of post-graduate programmes and in-service training courses;
  • authorised organisational units of an HEI can confer degrees of doctor (doktor) or habilitated doctor (doktor habilitowany); they can also apply for the title of professor (profesor) to be conferred to their academic staff, on conditions defined in the Act of 14 March 2003 on the Academic Degrees and Title, and on the Degrees and the Title in the field of Art (with further amendments).

There is no single Act regulating adult education and training as a whole. Relevant provisions are included in the School Education Act and the Law on Higher Education.

Moreover, arrangements for the training of unemployed people and job seekers are laid down in the Act of 20 April 2004 on the Promotion of Employment and Labour Market Institutions. The Act provides the basis for keeping the Register of Training Institutions. Institutions applying for public funding to provide training to the unemployed and job seekers should be entered on the Register. In October 2016, 10 934 training institutions were included in the register.