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Poland:European Perspective

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Integrated approach to the planning and implementation of the country’s development policy, including the development of the whole area of lifelong learning is to reinforce positive tendencies concerning the achievement of the Europe 2020 headline targets for education and training. As regards the reduction of the share of persons aged 18-24 having completed max. lower secondary education (ISCED2) and at the same time not participating in education and training i.e. the so-called early school leaving (ESL) rate target, Poland has for many years been one of the leaders in the EU (in 2002 the rate was 7.2% as compared to 16.9% in the EU and in 2015 the rate for Poland amounted to 5.3% and to 11.0% for the EU-28). When it comes to increasing of the share of population aged 30-34 having completed higher education, Poland has achieved one of the most dynamic growing rates in Europe: in 2002 the indicator amounted to 14.4% for Poland in comparison to the EU-28 average of 35.7%, and in 2015 the indicator for Poland amounted to 43.4% while the EU-28 average – to 38.7%, which for Poland means exceeding the benchmark for 2020 set at 40%.

Therefore it seems that the attainment of the Europe 2020 headline targets is already not the major challenge for Poland. Targets, based on a diagnosis of challenges incorporated into the abovementioned new development strategies, the Lifelong Learning Perspective and the monitoring of Europe 2020 strategy implementation in Poland include:

  • increasing the participation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) of children aged 0-5,
  • improving the links between education and labour market needs in particular in order to reduce effectively the unemployment rates among young people and increase the professional activity of the older population,
  • increasing the participation of adults in education, in particular low-skilled and disadvantaged groups,
  • improving the coherence and clarity of the National Qualifications Framework,
  • increasing creativity and innovation.

In order to enhance their effectiveness, all the reforms in education and training are coordinated with the implementation of projects financed from EU funds.

Education in the Europe 2020 Strategy

Europe 2020 is a 10-year strategy for a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategy identifies a number of key areas which concern the field of education and training: one of the five main headline targets concerns the improvement of education levels of European citizens (on the one hand by with twin targets on reducing early school leaving rates and on the other hand increasing higher education participation); country specific recommendations concerning, among others, education; the leading initiative - the Annual Growth Survey under the European semester of economic governance (Europa 2020 monitoring mechanism); the question of investment in education; and the agenda for New skills for New Jobs. The measures in the framework of educational policy identified in Europe 2020 strategy have been addressed in Poland in new development strategies (see Introduction).

Headline targets for education and training

The strategy identifies a Europe 2020 headline target with two underlying targets for education and training to be reached by the EU by 2020:

  • to reduce the percentage of early school leavers to under 10% from 14% in 2010;
  • to increase the share of the population aged 30–34 having completed tertiary or equivalent education from 33.5% in 2010 to at least 40%.

EU member states have translated these two EU wide-targets into specific national targets.

The Europe 2020 national targets have been defined more ambitiously for Poland than for the other EU member states. The target concerning the reduction of the share of early school leavers has been defined as 4.5 % (with 5.3 % recorded in 2015). The target concerning the increase of the share of the population aged 30-34 having completed tertiary education has been defined in Poland as 45% (with 43.4% in 2015). Having set this target at such a level Poland is among a few leading European countries with the target at the level of 45% or above.

Such an identification of targets is based on a considerable growth of educational aspirations of Polish citizens and the capacity of the whole education system (from ISCED 1 onwards) to satisfy these aspirations.

In the area of early school leavers since the beginning of the last decade Poland has been achieving better results than the EU benchmark. What influences the decreasing tendency of the share of early school leavers in Poland is a substantial part of population that completes upper secondary level.

When it comes to the second target – increasing of the share of population aged 30-34 having completed tertiary education - Poland has attained in  2015 the level of 43.4% which is above the European average. In addition, the pace of the increase of this indicator was one of the most dynamic in the EU over the last decade.

Country specific recommendations

In 2016 the following country specific recommendation has been formulated for Poland in the area of education (to be addressed in 2016-2017):

"Ensure the sustainability and adequacy of the pension system and increase participation in the labour market, by starting to reform the preferential pension arrangements, removing obstacles to more permanent types of employment and improving the labour market-relevance of education and training."

Information concerning the most recent recommendations is available here: http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/making-it-happen/country-specific-recommendations/index_en.htm.