This page was last modified on 19 January 2017, at 15:12.

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

The basic legislative acts that regulate the status and conditions of service of academic teachers and other higher education staff are the Act of 27 July 2005, The Law on Higher Education (LoHE), and a number of regulations adopted on its basis. LoHE applies to both public and non-public higher education institutions (HEIs), and both university-type and non-university HEIs (uczelnia akademicka and uczelnia zawodowa, respectively).

Matters related to authorisations to award doctoral and post-doctoral degrees (doktor and doktor habilitowany) and the title of professor (profesor), which are required for holding or promoting to higher-level research-and-teaching and research positions, as well as related award procedures, are regulated by the Act of 14 March 2003 on the Academic Degrees and Title and the Degrees and Title in Art.

Research-and-teaching staff and research staff are employed in the following positions:

  1. Full professor / Professor ordinarius (profesor zwyczajny),
  2. Associate professor / Professor extraordinarius (profesor nadzwyczajny),
  3. Visiting professor (profesor wizytujący),
  4. Assistant professor (adiunkt),
  5. Assistant (asystent).

Teaching staff are employed in the following positions:

  1. Senior lecturer (starszy wykładowca),
  2. Lecturer (wykładowca),
  3. Foreign language teacher (lektor) and instructor (instruktor).

Qualified librarians and qualified scientific documentation and information staff are employed in the following positions:

  1. Senior chartered custodian / librarian (starszy kustosz dyplomowany), senior chartered documentalist (starszy dokumentalista dyplomowany),
  2. Chartered custodian / librarian (kustosz dyplomowany), chartered documentalist (dokumentalista dyplomowany),
  3. Senior librarian (adiunkt biblioteczny), senior documentation and scientific information specialist (adiunkt dokumentacji i informacji naukowej),
  4. Library assistant (asystent biblioteczny), documentation and scientific information assistant (asystent dokumentacji i informacji naukowej).

Planning policy for academic staff

The responsibility for teaching staff policies and planning for the higher education sector rests with the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (in particular, the Department for Higher Education), established on 5 May 2006, following the division of the former Ministry of Education and Science into the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Statistical data for the end of December 2014:


  • 96 500 academic staff employed in HEIs, including slightly more than 2 000 international staff:
    • 92 900 full-time staff;
    • 3 600 part-time staff calculated as full-time equivalents (FTE);
  • Academic staff in a breakdown by position:
    • 23 100 professors, including full, associate and visiting professors;
    • 783 readers (docent);
    • 41 200 assistant professors;
    • 11 800 assistants;
  • Academic staff by type of HEI:
    • 86.5% of all academic staff working in public HEIs,
    • 13.5% working in non-public HEIs;
  • Female academic staff (42 700) representing 44.2% of all academic staff:
    • 6 100 women holding the position of professor: 26.6% of all academic staff in this position;
    • women representing 46.6% of all academic staff holding the position of assistant professor;
    • women representing 53.1% of all academic staff holding the position of assistant.

Source: Główny Urząd Statystyczny, GUS (Central Statistical Office), Szkoły wyższe i ich finanse w 2014 r. – Informacje i opracowanie statystyczne (Higher Education Institutions and their Finance in 2014)

Entry to the profession

Academic teachers may be persons who:

  • have the qualifications specified in the Law on Higher Education (LoHE);
  • have full legal capacity;
  • have not been convicted of an intentional offence by a valid court judgement;
  • have not been punished by a disciplinary penalty specified in LoHE; and
  • have full civic rights.

The requirements for individual positions are as follows:

  • The position of full professor (profesor zwyczajny) may be taken up by a person holding the academic title of professor (profesor).
  • The position of associate professor (profesor nadzwyczajny) may be taken up by a person holding a post-doctoral degree (doktor habilitowany) or the academic title of professor.
  • The position of visiting professor (profesor wizytujący) may be taken up by a person employed in another HEI who holds a post-doctoral degree (doktor habilitowany) or the title of professor.
  • The position of assistant professor (adiunkt) may be taken up by a person holding at least a doctoral degree (doktor).
  • The position of assistant (asystent) may be taken up by a person holding at least a Master’s degree (magister) or an equivalent degree.

Teaching staff positions may be taken up by persons holding a Master’s degree (magister) or an equivalent degree.

As of 1 October 2016, the rector of an HEI may also employ in the position of associate professor or visiting professor a person with a doctoral degree obtained in Poland or abroad who has led research teams in another country for at least five years and has significant research achievements (Journal of Law 2015, item 1767).

The requirements concerning the level of formal qualifications and the academic degree or title (doktor, doktor habilitowany or profesor, respectively) to be held by research-and-teaching staff, research staff and teaching staff are defined by LoHE (for details, see the section 'Professional promotion').

The statutes of an HEI may define additional requirements and professional qualifications for research-and-teaching, research and/or teaching staff.

Academic teachers in public HEIs are employed, for both a definite and indefinite period of time, on the basis of an open competition procedure in case their working time exceeds 50% of the statutory working hours.

Competition procedures and conditions are laid down in the statutes of an HEI. HEIs publish announcements on their websites and the websites of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, another ministry supervising a given HEI (where applicable) and the European Commission in the European portal for mobile researchers.

An academic teacher who is entitled to retire may be re-employed to take the same position in the same HEI without a competition procedure. Similarly, the regulations concerning competition procedures are not applicable where an HEI employs for a definite period of time an academic teacher who:

  • has been seconded to work in the HEI on the basis of an agreement concluded with an academic institution abroad;
  • is a beneficiary of a grant under a national Call published by the National Science Centre or the National Centre for Research and Development or an international Call for research proposals related to a given academic area where degree programmes are offered;
  • is employed for the implementation period of a project funded by the European Union or another grant-awarding body;
  • is employed in the same position if the previous employment contract was concluded for a period of at least 3 years.

Recruitment arrangements in non-public HEIs are laid down in their internal regulations.

Professional status

Academic teachers are employed on the basis of appointment, providing greater legal protection, or an employment contract.

Academic teachers may be employed on the basis of appointment only when they hold a professorial title and are employed on a full-time basis in a given HEI as the place of their primary employment.

The employment relationship with academic teachers is established by the rector in public HEIs or by the body specified in the statutes of an HEI in non-public HEIs, in both cases in accordance with a procedure laid down in the statutes of an HEI.

Upon the rector’s consent, academic teachers in public HEIs may perform work under an employment relationship for only one additional employer involved in teaching or research activities. Taking up or continuing additional employment without the rector’s consent provides the basis for termination of an employment relationship in a public HEI which is the place of the teacher’s primary employment.

Academic teachers are an intellectual and scientific elite; they enjoy the freedom to conduct scientific research, freedom of artistic creation and freedom of teaching. They benefit from the entitlements granted to creators in respect of copyright protection.

Statutory duties of research-and-teaching staff and research staff include:

  • conducting scientific research and development work,
  • developing research and artistic activities;
  • participating in the performance of organisational tasks in their institution.

Research-and-teaching staff are also obliged to train and educate students.

Statutory duties of teaching staff include:

  • training and educating students;
  • upgrading professional qualifications and skills;
  • participating in the performance of organisational tasks in their institution.

All academic teachers are subject to periodic assessment which concerns, in particular, the performance of their statutory duties, and observance of intellectual property, related rights and industrial property rights.

Assessment is carried out by the body specified in the statutes of an HEI at least every two years, or at least every four years in the case of teachers holding a professorial title and employed on the basis of appointment, or at the request of the head of the basic organisational unit (the dean of a faculty where faculties are basic organisational units) where the teacher is employed.

Assessment procedures and criteria are laid down in the statutes of an HEI, but HEIs are obliged to take into account student and doctoral student course evaluations when assessing the performance of teaching duties by teachers.

Conditions for the termination and expiry of an employment relationship with academic teachers employed on the basis of appointment include:

  • the teacher’s inability to perform work due to health reasons;
  • the liquidation of an HEI;
  • the teacher being convicted by a valid court judgement or punished by a disciplinary penalty;
  • a negative assessment of the teacher’s performance.

In the case of one negative performance assessment, the rector of an HEI may terminate, and in the case of two successive negative assessments, the rector is obliged to terminate an employment relationship with an appointed teacher.

An employment relationship with an academic teacher employed on the basis of an employment contract is terminated or expires in accordance with the generally applicable provisions of the Labour Code.

Additionally, this group of teachers is subject to the same provisions concerning the termination of an employment relationship due to negative performance assessment as teachers employed on the basis of appointment.

Salaries

The minimum rate of the basic pay for individual positions and the conditions for granting other elements of the salary in a public HEI are defined in such a way that the average monthly salary in relation to the reference amount, defined annually in the Budgetary Act for members of the Civil Service Corps, is not lower than:

  • 391.8% in the category of professorial positions;
  • 261.2% in the category of positions including associate professors and senior lecturers;
  • 130.6% in the category of positions including assistants, lecturers, language teachers and instructors.

The salary of an academic teacher in a public HEI consists of:

  • the basic pay (depending on the position held); and
  • allowances including: a function-related allowance, a length of service allowance and special allowances (for an extended scope of responsibilities, additional tasks, the nature or conditions of work).

Academic teachers receive an additional payment for overtime work and for performing tasks such as:

  • participation in the student admission process;
  • management and supervision of student practical placements;
  • supervision and reviews in the proceedings leading to the award of doctoral and post-doctoral degrees or professorial titles, and other reviews.

Academic teachers in a public HEI are entitled to anniversary awards for a long period of service (starting from a 20-year period of service).

All academic teachers may receive awards granted by the rector and the Minister of Science and Higher Education for research, teaching or organisational achievements or lifetime achievements.

Remuneration arrangements for academic teachers in non-public HEIs are laid down in their internal regulations. The level of the salary is normally negotiated between individual teachers and the founder of an HEI or a body specified in internal regulations.

Academic teachers on holiday leave are entitled to the remuneration which they would receive when working.

The rules for the remuneration of academic teachers are laid down in the Law on Higher Education, and the Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education of 11 December 2013 (as amended on 7 September 2015) on the conditions for remuneration and other work-related benefits for employees in a public higher education institution.

Working time and holidays

Working time

The working time of academic teachers is determined by the scope of their teaching and research and organisational duties.

The types of teaching activities included in the teaching load are defined by the senate of an HEI. The detailed scope of duties and the corresponding load for a teacher is determined by the head of the organisational unit specified in the statutes.

The annual teaching load defined in the Law on Higher Education is as follows:

  • between 120 and 240 hours for research-and-teaching staff;
  • between 240 and 360 hours for teaching staff, except for language teachers and instructors;
  • between 300 and 540 hours for language teachers, instructors and equivalent positions.

The rector may reduce the teaching load in case an academic teacher is assigned important tasks or carries out research projects, or performs other tasks provided for in the statutes of an HEI.

Academic teachers may be required to teach courses as overtime where this is justified by the need to implement a curriculum.

The Law on Higher Education limits the number of overtime hours to ¼ of the teaching load for research-and-teaching staff and to ½ of the teaching load for teaching staff. The number of overtime hours may be increased only upon the consent of the teacher concerned and in accordance with the rules laid down in the statures of an HEI.

Academic staff may not be assigned overtime duties without their prior consent during pregnancy or when taking care of a child of up to one year of age.

The statutes of a non-public HEI may define a different teaching load and a different number of working hours for its employees.

Holidays

Academic teachers are entitled to holiday leave of 36 working days per year.

The holiday entitlement of a part-time academic teacher is proportional to their mode of employment.

Holiday leave should be taken when no classes are held. The procedure for granting holidays is defined by the senate of an HEI or other body specified in its statutes.

Upon the rector’s consent, academic teachers may take unpaid sabbatical leave. Academic teachers holding at least a doctoral degree may be granted every 7 years a paid sabbatical leave of up to 1 year for conducting research outside their home HEI.

A teacher preparing a doctoral thesis may take paid sabbatical leave of up to 3 months.

Full-time academic teachers who have worked for at least 5 years and have a relevant medical certificate are entitled to paid health leave. The total duration of health leave during the entire employment period may not exceed 1 year. In case health leave is taken as more than one shorter period, the next leave may not be taken earlier than 3 years after the end of the previous leave granted.

Promotion, advancement

The academic and professional career of academic teachers distinguishes between:

  • degrees referred to as professional titles;
  • academic / research degrees and the academic / research title;
  • positions held in an HEI.

Degrees / Professional titles

Professional titles are Bachelor's degrees (licencjat or inżynier) and Master's degrees (magister or magister inżynier) or equivalent degrees.

The rules for awarding degrees / professional titles are laid down in the Law on Higher Education.

Academic / research degrees and the academic / research title

Academic / research degrees include a doctoral degree (doktor) and a post-doctoral degree (doktor habilitowany) which are awarded within a given area of science and a given scientific discipline. Doctoral degrees are conferred through so-called doctoral proceedings / a PhD award procedure, and post-doctoral degrees through post-doctoral (habilitacja) proceedings / award procedure, initiated at the request of the person applying for a degree.

The academic / research title is the title of professor (profesor) in a given area of science. The title is conferred for lifetime, and for all research/scientific achievements, by the President of Poland, at the request of the Central Commission for Degrees and Titles (responsible for ensuring harmonious development of research staff in line with highest research standards required for the award of the academic degrees and title=.

The rules for conferring the two academic degrees and the academic title are laid down in the Act on the Academic Degrees and Title, and on the Degrees and Title in the field of Art. The award requirements defined in the Act are minimum requirements.

Positions

Research-and-teaching positions:

  • Full professor (profesor zwyczajny),
  • Associate professor (profesor nadzwyczajny),
  • Visiting professor (profesor wizytujący),
  • Assistant professor (adiunkt),
  • Assistant (asystent).

Teaching positions:

  • Senior lecturer (starszy wykładowca),
  • Lecturer (wykładowca),
  • Foreign language teacher (lektor) and instructor (instruktor).

The Law on Higher Education (LoHE) defines general requirements for holding individual research-and-teaching, research and teaching positions. The key criteria, which are different for individual positions, refer to the academic title (professor), academic degrees (doctoral and post-doctoral degrees) and degrees / professional titles (Bachelor’s or Master’s or an equivalent degree). (See the section ‘Entry to the profession’).

Academic teachers may also be promoted to management positions in an HEI. These include: rector (rektor) and vice-rector (prorektor), head and deputy head of the basic organisational unit (kierownik i zastępca kierownika jednostki organizacyjnej uczelni), dean (dziekan) and vice-dean (prodziekan) of a faculty where faculties are basic organisational units. (See Chapter 10 ‘Management and Other Education Staff’).

Retirement and pensions

Academic teachers and members of their families are entitled to benefits on the basis of the legislation on retirement pensions and pensions for the disabled from the Social Security Fund.

Academic teachers born before 31 December 1948 may retire:

  • for men: after 30 years of service, including 20 years in the education sector or research institutions, when they have reached the age of 60;
  • for women: after 25 years of service, including 20 years in the education sector or research institutions, at the age of 55 (in practice, these provisions are no longer applicable to female teachers as those born before 1949 have already reached the regular retirement age by now).

Other academic teachers may retire in accordance with the general rules laid down in retirement regulations, i.e. at the age of 60 for women and at the age of 65 for men, but academic teachers normally work much longer.

An employment relationship with an academic teacher employed in a public HEI on the basis of appointment expires at the end of the academic year in which he/she has reached the age of 65, or at the end of the academic year in which he/she has reached the age of 70 in the case of an appointed teacher with a professorial title who holds a position of associate professor or full professor in a public HEI.

Pursuant to the amendment to the Act of 17 December 1998 on retirement pensions, and pensions for the disabled from the Social Security Fund, which came into force on 1 January 2013, the official retirement age for both men and women was raised to 67. The process is introduced gradually – gradual increase by 1 month every 4 months.

An academic teacher who is entitled to retire may be re-employed to take the same position in a given HEI without a competition procedure.

Academic teachers retiring at the retirement age or due to incapacity for work are entitled to a one-off retirement gratuity which is equivalent to triple basic remuneration received for the final month of their employment.

The basis for the calculation of a retirement pension or a pension for the disabled is determined according to the general rules laid down in the regulations on the retirement pension and pension for the disabled from the Social Security Fund.

The basis also includes overtime payments, allowances and all awards received for professional achievements during the years which are the reference period for a retirement pension or a pension for the disabled.