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Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

Pupil assessment

Basic principles of the assessment system in Poland

The assessment system distinguishes two strands: internal and external assessment. A legislative framework for assessment is currently provided by the School Education Act, supplemented with several Regulations of the Minister of National Education.

Internal assessment is carried out by school teachers against the requirements which are defined by them on the basis of curricula implemented in a given school. This type of assessment covers pupils' learning achievements and aims to support their development. It is primarily formative assessment.

External assessment is carried out by state institutions which are external to the school, including the Central Examination Board and Regional Examination Boards. It is summative assessment.


Internal assessment

Internal assessment of pupils’ learning achievements involves assessing the level of pupils' knowledge and skills as well as the progress made in relation to the requirements based on the curricula. Internal assessment covers the pupil’s learning achievements and his/her behaviour.

Internal assessment aims at:

  1. informing pupils on the level of their learning achievements and behaviour, and their progress in this respect;
  2. supporting pupils in learning by providing feedback to them on where they have performed well and how they should learn further on;
  3. supporting pupils in the individual planning of their development;
  4. motivating pupils to make further progress in learning and behaviour;
  5. providing parents (legal guardians) and teachers with the information on pupils' progress or learning difficulties, behaviour and special talents;
  6. enabling teachers to improve organizational approaches and methods used in their educational activities.

Internal assessment includes:

  1. defining educational requirements to obtain individual semester (mid-year) and end-of-year marks for compulsory and additional classes;
  2. setting criteria for the assessment of behaviour;
  3. conducting assessment on an on-going basis, and giving semester and end-of-year marks for compulsory and additional classes and for behaviour according to the scale and in forms approved in a given school;
  4. conducting so-called qualifying exams which provide the basis for marks (e.g. in the case of pupils who did not attend classes in a given semester);
  5. defining conditions and procedures for pupils wishing to improve their expected semester and end-of-year marks for compulsory and additional classes and semester and end-of-year marks for behaviour;
  6. defining conditions and procedures for pupils wishing to improve their expected end-of-year and (in the case of post-secondary schools) semester marks for classes and semester and end-of-year marks for behaviour;
  7. defining conditions and procedures for providing parents (legal guardians) with information on pupils' progress or learning difficulties.

Pupils are assessed separately in each subject. Assessment depends on the teacher of a given subject, though it may not be arbitrary considering the pre-defined assessment criteria. Results of the assessment carried out during a school year are taken into account in the end-of-year assessment.

Assessment is based on single, mid-year (semester) and end-of-year marks. Mid-year and end-of-year marks are based on an assessment which sums up achievements of the pupil in a given semester or school year respectively. In grades IV to VI, the primary school pupil who has received a positive mark at the end of the school year is promoted to the next grade (see below).

Pupils in grades I to III of the primary school are given one end-of-year mark for educational activities and one end-of-year mark for behaviour. Marking is descriptive.

Starting in grade IV, the teacher uses the following marking scale to assess pupils' learning achievements: 6 - excellent, 5 - very good, 4 - good, 3 - satisfactory, 2 - acceptable, 1 - unsatisfactory.

Pursuant to the legislation passed on 20 February 2015 (the act amending the School Education Act), as from grade IV, teachers can also use descriptive assessment of pupils’ achievements in compulsory or optional subjects, if this is provided for in the school statutes.

When giving marks in physical education, technology, technical classes, visual art, music and art classes, teachers should take into account, in particular, the efforts made by the pupil to fulfil the specific requirements of a given subject.

School marks and the criteria for giving them should be made available to pupils and their parents. Detailed requirements and marking procedures as part of internal assessment are laid down in the statutes of a given school; aside from annual information for parents on the requirements set, this is the key element ensuring fairness in assessment in Polish schools.

Pupils also receive marks for their behaviour (conduct) according to the following scale: excellent, very good, good, acceptable, unacceptable, inadmissible. The mark for behaviour should not influence subject marks, the promotion to the next grade or graduation. However, in specific cases, the teaching council of the school may decide that the pupil cannot be promoted to the next grade or complete education in the primary school due to his/her inadmissible behaviour.

Pupils may take a so-called qualifying examination if the semester or end-of-year mark given by the teacher is too low in their (or their parents’) opinion. This exam may also be taken by pupils whose results cannot be assessed due to various reasons such as an individualised study programme, learning outside school (e.g. at home) or the pupil's illness.

External assessment

As envisaged in the reform of the Polish school education system initiated in 1999, a compulsory test for all pupils was to be conducted annually at the end of primary education (after grade VI). Taking the test was one of the conditions to complete primary education. The test was not taken by pupils with moderate and severe mental disabilities.

Before 2014, an external test was based on the national examination standards defined in separate legislation. As from 2015, the final primary school test was based on different rules. These rules were defined in the amended Regulation of the Minister of National Education on the conditions and rules for pupil assessment, eligibility for assessment, promotion and examinations and tests in public schools (amended on 25 April 2013). The amendments adopted then were intended to complete the process of the harmonization of the external examination system which had been initiated in 2012. The changes in external examinations were coordinated with the implementation of the new core curriculum, a process to be completed for grades IV to VI of the primary school in the school year 2014/2015. According to these rules, the test was directly based on the core curriculum for general education, and not on examination standards defined in separate legislation.

The external test at the end of primary education has been abolished by the School Education Act amended in 2016. Thus, assessment in primary schools has been limited solely to internal assessment in the future.

Detailed rules for the final primary school test were laid down in the amended Regulation of the Minister of National Education of 25 April 2013. It introduced new rules for conducting the test as from the school year 2014/2015. They were largely incorporated into the School Education Act before its 2016 amendment which has abolished the test. The test was based on requirements included in the revised core curriculum. It consisted of two parts: the first one in the Polish language and Mathematics, and the second one in a modern foreign language.

Results of the test were used for information purposes only and thus should not serve as a basis for any selection or ranking of pupils. Every pupil who had completed primary education, regardless of his/her results in the test, had the right to be admitted to a lower secondary school in his/her catchment area.

Progression of pupils

Pupils in grades I to III are promoted on the basis of a descriptive yearly assessment of their performance in classes. The assessment takes into consideration the pupil's level of knowledge and skills covered by the requirements in the core curriculum for general education at the first stage of education and shows the pupil’s developmental and educational needs linked to overcoming learning difficulties or developing talents. Repeating the year at this stage of education is an exception and should be justified by psychologists and accepted by parents

As from grade IV, pupils are promoted to a higher grade if they have received end-of-year marks higher than “unsatisfactory” in all compulsory subjects. In the case of one "unsatisfactory" mark, they can take a 'resit' exam. Pupils who have not passed the exam are not promoted to the higher grade. The teaching council of the primary school may decide about conditional promotion of a pupil who has received mark 1 (unsatisfactory) in one subject only. If a pupil has not attended over 50% of compulsory classes and there is no basis for his/her assessment, he/she can take a so-called qualifying exam on the date agreed with the pupil and his/her parents. A pupil can be conditionally promoted to the next grade only once during the entire primary education cycle. Pupils complete a school year or the entire primary education cycle with 'distinction' if their average end-of-year mark for all compulsory classes is 4.75 or above and their behaviour mark is at least very good.

Certification

All public primary schools as well as non-public schools (which are obliged to have the public school status) award standardised certificates. The layout of these documents and the rules for filling them are defined in the relevant regulations of the minister responsible for school education (e.g. certificates with distinction have a vertical red-and-white stripe and are marked "with distinction").

Certificates confirming the completion of each grade are necessary when children change school (place of residence), while the primary school leaving certificate is required for admission to a lower secondary school.

In the years 2003-2016, every pupil received a certificate with the result of the final compulsory test, issued by the Regional Examination Board, together with the final primary school leaving certificate.