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Poland:Adult Education and Training

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Overview Poland

Contents

Poland:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Poland:Historical Development

Poland:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Poland:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Poland:Political and Economic Situation

Poland:Organisation and Governance

Poland:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Poland:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Poland:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Poland:Organisation of Private Education

Poland:National Qualifications Framework

Poland:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Poland:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Poland:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Poland:Funding in Education

Poland:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Poland:Higher Education Funding

Poland:Adult Education and Training Funding

Poland:Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Poland:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:Primary Education

Poland:Organisation of Primary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Poland:Assessment in Primary Education

Poland:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Poland:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Poland:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Poland:Higher Education

Poland:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Poland:First Cycle Programmes

Poland:Bachelor

Poland:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Poland:Second Cycle Programmes

Poland:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Poland:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Poland:Adult Education and Training

Poland:Distribution of Responsibilities

Poland:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Poland:Main Providers

Poland:Main Types of Provision

Poland:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Poland:Teachers and Education Staff

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Poland:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Management and Other Education Staff

Poland:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Poland:Management Staff for Higher Education

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Poland:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Quality Assurance

Poland:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Poland:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Educational Support and Guidance

Poland:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Poland:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Poland:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Poland:Mobility and Internationalisation

Poland:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Mobility in Higher Education

Poland:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Poland:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Poland:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Poland:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Poland:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Poland:National Reforms in School Education

Poland:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Poland:National Reforms in Higher Education

Poland:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Poland:European Perspective

Poland:Legislation

Poland:Institutions

Poland:Glossary

any concepts and terms are used in Poland as related to the policy for adult education, and they may be understood differently depending on the context. This refers particularly to adult education and training discussed in this chapter. For only two years now, efforts have been taken to integrate into the education area terms convergent with European definitions concerning lifelong learning, including adult education and training (in 2013, the government adopted new strategic documents, the Lifelong Learning Perspective and the Human Capital Development Strategy, that define key policy terms for lifelong learning).

Programme documents adopted in Poland and in the EU, as well as in the Polish regulations for education include the following terms:

  1. Adult education (AE, edukacja dorosłych), associated with adult education and training (AET, kształcenie i szkolenie dorosłych). The scope of adult education and training exceeds considerably the scope of school and higher education and traditional training courses. AET is also provided as on-the-job practical training or as organized activities of communities. In Poland, there is no comprehensive definition of AET, which may result, on the one hand, from a very wide area it covers, and on the other hand, from difficulties in adjusting this multidimensional definition to one organizational structure.
  2. Continuing education (CE, kształcenie ustawiczne), defined only in the School Education Act (Article 3, section 16). CE is a small part of AET, covering, under the Act, education in schools for adults (where the number of learners has been decreasing) and four types of adult training organized by institutions specified in the regulations on school education.

In Poland, adult education and training is potentially targeted at adult population (over the age of 18) of 31.5 million people (Central Statistical Office, 2014). The group providing the European point of reference are those aged 25-64 involved in AET in the period of four weeks preceding an AET survey – there are 22.3 million people in this age bracket in Poland.

According to EUROSTAT, the participation of adult Poles in AET has remained below the EU-28 average for many years now. Moreover, this indicator for Poland seems to be decreasing slightly, whereas the EU average has been steadily increasing. Adult education and training is the most diversified area of education in Poland; this is due not only to the diversity of its target groups, their age as well as social and professional status, but also to the wide range of AET providers. When defining adult education and training, all social and economic activity sectors involved should be taken into account, including public administration, business entities and non-governmental organizations. Considering its objectives and organizational form, AET may be divided into formal and non-formal education, which is illustrated below.

Poland adult02.jpg

Source: Author’s own elaboration.

The diagram does not include informal education since it is not a part of the institutionalized adult education network. Informal education takes place outside this system, although some learning outcomes may be validated and, thus, take the form of certified learning outcomes. Still, this sector makes up a whole together with the other sectors of adult education, and each qualification level may be achieved through both formal education and various ways of training.

Adult education and training in Poland:

  • Key data sources on AET (or rather some sectors of it) are: the EU Labour Force Survey and the Adult Education Survey (AES) conducted by the Central Statistical Office, and the Study of Human Capital (Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego, BKL) carried out jointly in 2010-2014 by the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development (Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, PARP) and the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The BKL study will be continued as from 2017, based on a different approach. Data on competences of adult citizens is collected by the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competences ( PIAAC).
  • Adult Education Survey, last carried out in the 1st quarter of 2012 (previously in 2006) by the Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny), is a cyclical study on participation of adults in formal, non-formal and informal education. The Polish edition of the survey belongs to the international AES.
  • Poles aged 25 and above increasingly participate in activities within non-formal education (21% in 2012 as compared to 18.6% in 2006) and informal education (29% in 2012 and 25.4% in 2006). Participation of those enrolling in the formal school system or HEIs (incl. non-degree postgraduate and doctoral programmes) remains at the same low level: 5.4% of adults aged 25-64.
  • Circa 36% of Poles aged 25 and above participated in 2011 in at least one of the above-mentioned forms of education, with the proportion being 45% in urban areas and 25% in rural areas. Participation in education clearly decreases with age – education is taken up by ca half of 3-34-year-olds, ca 38% of those aged 45-49 and only 28% of persons in the age group of 55-59. People improving their qualifications are, first of all, those in employment – 45%, as opposite to those without a job – 16% of those surveyed.