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Organisation and Governance

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The most important characteristics of the education and training system at all levels are described. The main trends towards centralisation, decentralisation, deconcentration or deregulation are explained as well as the roles of the main decision-making bodies (central, regional or local authorities, education institutions, etc.)
If you would like country specific information on this topic, please click on the appropriate flag at the bottom of the page.

Fundamental Principles and National Policies

The fundamental principles governing the entire education system are set out in this section e.g. those set out in the Constitution/primary education legislation. The main aims and objectives of national educational policies are outlined with reference and links to relevant laws and/or official documents.

Lifelong Learning (LLL) Strategy

This section describes key policy developments related to the implementation of the lifelong learning (LLL) strategies including:
• Historical background
• Political background
• Economic background
• Social background

Goals and Objectives:
The main goals and objectives of the national LLL policy, such as improving the quality of life/ reducing social inequalities are detailed.

Stakeholders:
It also gives a description of the responsibilities, coordination and consultation mechanisms between key stakeholders responsible for LLL in the country.


Outcomes:
It describes the developments and innovations in educational provision that are an outcome of the lifelong learning strategy e.g.
• The creation of guidance and counseling services
• Regional LLL networks
• Introduction of flexible learning paths
• Development of the National Qualifications Framework
• Curricula based on learning outcomes
• Measures for recognition and validation of prior learning

Organisation of the Education System and of Its Structure

This section provides a broad picture of the different learning opportunities available within the entire education system. More detailed information is included in the topics describing the particular level and/or type of education (e.g. typical programme duration and typical age of participants):
• Pre-primary education
• Primary education
• Secondary education
• Post-secondary education
• Higher education
• Adult education education

It outlines the types of education/training institutions offering educational programmes at different levels (public sector as well as the fully private and grant-aided private institutions). It explains the rights and responsibilities of pupils and parents with regard to compulsory education including, and if relevant, any special forms of provision that may be possible (e.g. home schooling).

Organisation of Private Education

This section provides information on the fully private and grant-aided private sectors.

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

This section provides information on the stage of development and implementation of the National Qualifications Framework e.g. calendar, goals and purposes, consultation process, and monitoring.


Design and Compatibility with European Frameworks:
This following are described:
• The structure of qualifications levels
• The use of learning outcomes and/or competences
• The rules regarding how qualifications are constructed and described
• The requirements concerning the quality assurance related to acquisition of qualifications in the frameworkDesign and Compatibility with European Frameworks:

The following are described:
• The structure of qualifications levels
• The use of learning outcomes and/or competences
• The rules regarding how qualifications are constructed and described
• The requirements concerning the quality assurance related to acquisition of qualifications in the framework


The section also explores how the NQF is compatible with the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF), and the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area.

Problems/Barriers to development and implementation:
Finally, some information is available on the main problems/barriers to the NQF development and/or implementation.

Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

This section describes how the governance and administration of the entire education system is organised at central and/or regional level.
The extent to which the education system is centralised, decentralised or deregulated is explained. (e.g.) distribution of responsibilities and powers, functions/tasks of central and/or regional authorities (such as Ministry of Education and/or other ministries, regional councils, etc.), according to distinct levels and/or types of education.
The organisational structure of the Ministry of Education and its structure is given as well The main responsibilities that lie at central and regional level are explained.

Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

This section explores how the governance of the entire education and training system is organised at local and/or institutional level. Each country description defines in detail “local level” and “institutional level”. It also explains the consultation processes in decision-making.
Aspects of education on which local authorities and/or education institutions are autonomous to take their own decisions e.g. the curriculum, appointment of staff, time management, recruitment, etc.) are described.


Distribution of Responsibilities and Powers:
The distribution of responsibilities and powers according to distinct levels and/or types of education, the following are explored e.g.
• The functions/tasks of local authorities, education/training institutions and/or their governing bodies
• Head teachers/teachers/trainers
• Parents, pupils/students/the local community
• Industry, the social partners, professional organisations etc.Distribution of Responsibilities and Powers:

The distribution of responsibilities and powers according to distinct levels and/or types of education, the following are explored e.g.
• The functions/tasks of local authorities, education/training institutions and/or their governing bodies
• Head teachers/teachers/trainers
• Parents, pupils/students/the local community
• Industry, the social partners, professional organisations etc.

Statistics on Organisation and Governance

This includes statistics on the number of educational institutions in different educational levels and types with a definition used at national level for the educational institutions covered.


 Austria Greece.png Greece                    Portugal.png Portugal
Belgium.png Belgium (Flemish Community) Hungary.png Hungary Romania.png Romania
Belgium.png Belgium (French Community) Iceland.png Iceland Slovakia.png Slovakia  
Belgium.png Belgium (German-Speaking Community) Ireland.png Ireland                        Slovenia.png Slovenia
Bulgaria.png Bulgaria Italy.png Italy Spain.png Spain
Croatia.png Croatia Latvia.png Latvia Sweden.png Sweden
Cyprus.png Cyprus Liechtenstein.png Liechtenstein Switzerland.png Switzerland
Czech.png Czech Republic Lithuania.png Lithuania Turkey.png Turkey
Denmark.png Denmark Luxembourg.png Luxembourg Uk.png United Kingdom (England)
Estonia.png Estonia Malta.png Malta Uk.png United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)
Finland.png Finland Netherland.png Netherlands Uk.png United Kingdom (Scotland)
France.png France Norway.png Norway Uk.png United Kingdom (Wales)
Germany.png Germany Poland.png Poland