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Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary

Curriculum, subjects, number of hours

The teaching and examination regulations drawn up by the administration of the institution describe the content and organisation of each course offered by the institution and the examinations to be held. The contract concluded between the institution and the student includes provisions on supervision, including regular advice to students as to whether they should continue with their course or switch to another one.


Transfer and mobility within the vocational education sector

There is a shortage of skilled people at the intermediate and higher levels on the Dutch labour market, so the Ministry of Education is working with the vocational education sector to facilitate the transition from one level of vocational education to another. Secondary vocational education must supply enough young people with level 3 and 4 qualifications to meet demand in the lower and middle ranges of the knowledge economy. It is vital for students to be able to move on without difficulty from pre-vocational secondary education (VMBO) to secondary vocational education (MBO) to higher professional education (HBO). Under the new arrangements, more students will be able to obtain the right qualifications and be equipped for the job market sooner than in the past. Most students who complete VMBO go on to MBO, and the link between the two has been strengthened by the introduction of the four ‘learning pathways’ within vocational education. Extra support will be provided for pupils transferring from VMBO to MBO. Plans are also under way to develop the concept of ‘learning careers’, enabling young people to exploit all the opportunities that are open to them across a wide range of learning environments, and to remove the barriers between the different levels of vocational education.


Teaching methods and materials

Nothing is laid down in the Adult and Vocational Education Act (WEB) regarding teaching methods. It is up to the institutions themselves and the field to organise courses and teaching in such a way that students are able to obtain a certificate. All secondary vocational education courses include practical training. This takes up between 20% and 60% of the course in the case of the vocational training pathway (BOL) and more than 60% for the block or day release pathway (BBL).

The diploma awarded at level 2 of the qualification structure for vocational education is equivalent to a basic qualification. Holders of this diploma are capable of carrying out slightly more complicated routines and standard procedures and are equipped to enter the labour market.

 

Main areas of specialisation (Qualification structure)

The qualification structure for secondary vocational education introduced on 1 August 1997 comprises four levels of training:
● level 1: courses at assistant level equip students to perform simple executive tasks. These courses are intended for those who are not able to obtain a basic qualification (level 2) but can thus obtain a certificate nonetheless.
● level 2: basic vocational training prepares students to perform executive tasks (slightly more complicated routines and standard procedures). The diploma awarded at this level is equivalent to a basic qualification, which is the minimum qualification that everyone should have.
● level 3: holders of a professional training diploma are able to carry out tasks completely independently. They must also be able to account for their actions to colleagues and monitor and supervise the application of standard procedures by others.
● level 4 : middle-management or specialist training prepares students to carry out tasks completely independently, combined with the ability to perform a broad range of tasks or specialisation in a particular field. Students must also demonstrate that they possess non-job-specific skills, such as tactical and strategic thinking, and can expect to take up posts in which they have hierarchical, formal and organisational responsibilities.


The policy document on adult and vocational education proposes introducing an entry-level qualification (which would come before level 1) for young people who are unable to complete training at assistant level. All courses (or, in official terminology, ‘qualifications’) forming part of the qualification structure are listed in the Central Register of Vocational Courses (CREBO in Dutch only). A total of 700 qualifications have been registered to date. In principle, each of these courses should be offered in two variants (i.e. two alternative learning pathways). This is currently the case for just over half of all courses. Since the introduction of the new legislation, private (i.e. non-government-funded) educational institutions have also been able to offer courses within the new qualification structure.