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Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary

Curriculum, subjects, number of hours

Also in upper secondary education, the government, schools and teachers together shape the curriculum. Recent criticism created a new dialogue and the necessary to renovate the current curriculum. These sentiments stimulated the origin of a new platform, called ‘Education 2032’ (in Dutch). Important aspects that gain attention are ICT- literacy, problem solving skills, critical thinking, creativity and the forming of social competences. However, the new platform still developing and not ready yet to implement. 

At the end of the 3rd year of HAVO and VWO (and in some cases at the end of the 4th year of VWO), pupils choose one of four subject combinations and are often regrouped accordingly.

From the fourth school year of HAVO and VWO the preparation for higher education starts. This phase is arranged according to different profiles. A profile is a coherent program with the following construction:

  • A general social and personal preparation
  • A general preparation on higher education
  • A special preparation for groups related to various studies (of content) in higher education.

The four profile types are:

  1. Nature and Technique
  2. Nature and Health
  3. Economy and Society
  4. Culture and Society

Each profile comprises:

  • a common component, which is identical for all profiles of the respective school type;
  • a sector-specific component, specific for each profile and;
  • an optional component.

Since 2015-2016 there is no prescribed or advisory timetable, and no prescribed minimum for the number of teaching hours in each subject. The old norm is replaced by a norm per study field, set in the law ‘Wet modernisering onderwijstijd’ (Law modernisation of instruction time). Schools decide for themselves how these hours should be spread over the school year, as long as they maintain  the  norm for the hours throughout the whole studies:

  • 3700 hours in VMBO
  • 4700 hours in HAVO
  • 5700 hours in VWO

HAVO curriculum

The common component in every profile of general secondary education (HAVO) contains:

  1. Dutch language and literature
  2. English language and literature
  3. Social studies
  4. Culture and the arts
  5. Physical education

The profile- specific component in every profile contains:
 Nature and Technique:

  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • An optional course

• Nature and Health:

  • Mathematics
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • An optional course:

• Economy and Society:

  • Mathematics
  • Economics
  • History
  • An optional course

• Culture and Society:

  • History
  • Another modern language
  • An optional course, choice from the cultural courses

For optional component of the profile the pupils can choose from the subjects the school board offers. The school board can decide whether the pupils need the follow subjects and other programme components.



VWO curriculum

Pre- university education includes grammar school and pre- university education (VWO).
The common component in every profile of pre- university education consists of:

  1. Dutch language and literature
  2. English language and literature
  3. A second modern language
  4. Social studies
  5. General science
  6. Culture arts (or classic culture for the grammar- school pupils)
  7. Physical education

The profile- specific component of the various profiles is almost the same as the HAVO profiles. One difference is that for the Culture and Society profile HAVO- pupils, mathematics is not compulsory. Another difference is that a second modern language at the profile- specific component is compulsory  for havo- pupils, and this is not the case for vwo- pupils. The relative weight of each of the courses of the final exam are expressed in the normative workload per subject.




Teaching methods and materials

There are no detailed regulations with regard to the curriculum (content, teaching methods and materials). Some schools organize their teaching according to a particular educational theory. These include Montessori, Dalton, Freinet and Jena Plan schools, which may be public-authority or private. For more information see 6.2.


ICT in education

For more information about ICT in secondary education see 6.2.


Educational/vocational guidance and education/employment links

It is the government’s aim that every school-leaver entering the labour market possesses at least the minimum qualifications for entry to a profession. HAVO provides a general education and is intended to prepare pupils for entry to higher professional education/university of applied sciences (HBO). In practice, however, pupils with HAVO certificates (graduated) also opt to move across into VWO or go on to MBO. The purpose of VWO is to prepare pupils for university entry (WO). However, some pupils with VWO qualifications (graduated) go on to HBO. New subject combinations have been introduced in HAVO and VWO with the aim of improving the interface with higher education.

VMBO is not designed as terminal education but is intended to lay the basis for further education. The majority of pupils with VMBO qualifications go on to MBO. The four learning pathways were introduced in VMBO in an attempt to facilitate the transition to MBO. Given the continuing shortage of skilled personnel on the labour market, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is working with the vocational education sector on measures to make it easier for students to move up through VMBO and MBO to higher professional education (HBO).

On a lot of secondary school it is possible to receive career advice from school career advisers about career and jobs possibilities.