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Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary


Current political situation

The Rutte-Asscher government, representing a coalition between the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Labour Party (PvdA), came to power on 5 November 2012. The following table shows the division of seats after the 2012 elections.

2010 2012
People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD)   31   41
Labour Party (PvdA)   30   38
Freedom Party (PVV)   24   15
Socialist Party (SP)   15   15
Christian Democratic Alliance (CDA)   21   15
Democrats ‘66 (D’66)   10    2
Christian Union    5    5
Green Left Alliance   10    4
Calvinist Party (SGP)    2    3
Animal Rights Party    2    2
50Plus    -    2

The current government comprises 13 ministers (seven from the VVD and six from the PvdA) and seven state secretaries (three each from the VVD and the PvdA).

The coalition agreement ‘Building Bridges’ encapsulates the government’s plans for education. The main aim is to transform ‘good education’ into ‘excellent education’.

The elections for the  are going to be held on Wednesday March 15th 2017. Electoral law determines that not later than 5 years after the former elections, new elections have to take place. These are held pursuant to the electoral law in March, unless there are other elections in that period (for states or councils).

The current Lower House of Parliament will be dissolved on Thursday March 23th and then the re-elected Chamber will take office.

Investments in education

In 2015, in total 42,3 milliard euro was allocated to education, including the research that universities of applied sciences and academic universities implement as part of their legitimate task and in the form of contract research for thirds. This is over 19 milliard euro in 2000. Within the government, the central government in particular spends more on education and research.

 

 

 

2000

2005

2010

2015

 

In mln euro

 

 

 

 

 

Investments in education

 

 

23.196

32.159

39.567

42.324

Government

 

 

19.638

26.864

32.802

34.503

Investments to educational institutions

 

 

18.031

24.876

30.395

32.218

Subsidy and tax arrangements

 

 

1.972

2.302

2.850

2562

Income

 

 

365

314

443

277

Housekeeping

 

 

1.947

2.936

3.468

3.315

Investments to educational institutions

 

 

1.749

2.250

2.563

3.076

Other investments in education

 

 

1.224

1.598

1.742

1.740

Received contributions

 

 

1.026

912

837

603

Companies

 

 

1.418

2.109

2.866

3.184

Investments to educational institutions

 

 

1.692

2.399

3.447

3.417

Other investments in education

 

 

6

12

27

78

Grants received

 

 

280

302

608

311

Buitenland

 

 

193

250

431

424

Investments to education institutions

 

 

78

134

277

390

Subsidy grant

 

 

115

115

154

34

Spending in education

 

In BBP%

5,2

5,8

6,2

5,8


The national government has divided almost €29 billion across all educational sectors. Educational institutions receive one budget from the government for all their costs. This amount of money is called lumpsum. In addition, educational institutions receive additional money to improve the quality of education.

  • Most of the money has been allocated to primary education (€9.9 billion) and secondary education (€7.6 billion);
  • then vocational education and adult education, and universities follow (both €4.4 million).
  • Higher professional education (universities of applied sciences) received €2.6 million.

The expenses per pupil
The budget of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture mentions how much money there is available for each pupil. For example in 2015 there was €6.500 available per pupil in primary education. On average there was €7.863 available per pupil secondary education.


Government spending on educational institutions in % BBP (GDP)


2000 2005 2010 2015
 % GDP
Education spending    5.2
 5.8
  6.2
 5.8


Population: highest level of education achieved by age

 

 

 

2005

2010

2015

Age

Highest level of education achieved

 

X 1000

 

 

 

 

15 years and older

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

13.119

13.457

13.874

 

Primary education

1.541

1.414

1.508

 

VMBO-G/T, AVO lower secondary education

1.212

1.246

975

 

VMBO-B/K, MBO level 1

2.225

2.117

2.025

 

MBO level 2 and 3

1.799

1.820

2.379

 

MBO level 4

2.009

2.124

1.802

 

HAVO,VWO

1.242

1.184

1.209

 HBO, WO Bachelor

1.889

2.246

2.439

 

HBO-, Wo-Master, Doctor

1.077

1.204

1.375

 

Unknown

124

104

 162

More and more young people are opting for senior general secondary education (HAVO) and pre-university education (VWO). An increasing number of young people with a pre-vocational education certificate (VMBO) are staying in school in order to get a HAVO qualification.

In recent years more and more young adults (aged 18-25) have enrolled in higher education. As a result, the level of education of the population as a whole has improved.