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Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary

 

Types of institutions

Institutions are required to provide made-to-measure training for jobseekers, people in regular employment and young people with no work experience. The Adult and Vocational Education Act (WEB) gives institutions the opportunity to devise special learning pathways for educationally disadvantaged students. Regional training centres (ROCs) offer a complete range of adult and vocational education courses, both full-time and part-time. This combined approach serves to strengthen the institutional and curricular cohesion between vocational education and adult education. Since the introduction of the WEB in 1996, municipalities have been responsible for planning and funding adult education. The Adult and Vocational Education Council is the umbrella organisation representing the sector. In 2011, the sector consisted of 43 ROCs (excluding those in the agricultural sector). From 1 January 1998, institutions which were not part of an ROC ceased to be eligible for government funding with the exception of 13 specialist colleges providing training for a specific branch of industry. Two other institutions have been granted exemption on religious grounds and two are attached to institutes for the deaf. Agricultural courses are now provided at agricultural training centres (AOCs). Vocational education courses in the agriculture and natural environment sector are the responsibility of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation.

Geographical accessibility

The government has no special policies on the geographical accessibility of institutions for adult and vocational education.

Admission requirements and choice of school

Under the qualification structure introduced by the Adult and Vocational Education Act:

  • anyone may enrol for a course at assistant or basic vocational training level.  There are no requirements regarding previous education;
  • the admission requirements for a course at professional or middle-management training level are:
  • a certificate of pre-vocational secondary education or
  • a certificate of junior general secondary education (MAVO) or ○ proof that the first three years of senior general secondary education or pre-university education have been successfully completed;
  • admission to a course at specialist level is possible with a professional training qualification for the same occupation or occupational group. 

The rights of VMBO (pre-vocational secondary education) certificate-holders regarding admission to secondary vocational education (MBO) are regulated by law. Students who successfully complete the theoretical, combined or middle-management vocational programme at VMBO level are eligible for professional and middle-management training (MBO levels 3 and 4). Students who complete the basic vocational programme are eligible for basic vocational training (MBO level 2). The aim of secondary vocational education, as defined in the Adult and Vocational Education Act, is to provide both theoretical instruction and practical training in preparation for the practice of a wide range of occupations for which a vocational qualification is necessary or useful. It also furthers the general education and personal development of students and helps them to play an active part in society.

Centres of expertise on vocational education, training and the labour market

The Adult and Vocational Education Act contains measures to bring education more into line with the world of work. The centres of expertise on vocational education, training and the labour market (KBBs) form the link between vocational education and the business sector organisations. Organised by sector, their managing boards comprise representatives of employers and employees, and in most cases, educational institutions. The centres are responsible for developing a clear qualification structure setting out the knowledge and skills required by employers. The KBBs monitor the quality of MBO examinations and ensure sufficient training placements. They also decide which companies or organisations are qualified to provide practical training, on the basis of specific criteria. Employers meeting these criteria receive official recognition and are entered in the centre’s register. COLO was the umbrella organisation for the centres. The foundation for vocational Cooperation (SBB) was launched in January 2012. SBB works with the MBO and industrial organizations and this foundation has replaced Colo.