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Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary

Main types of provision

Adult education courses cater for:

  • Adult general secondary education (VAVO)
  • Dutch as a second language
  • Dutch and arithmetic

1. VAVO
Adult education caters for people aged 18 and over who wish to obtain a full or partial qualification in pre-vocational secondary education (VMBO, theoretical programme), senior general secondary education (HAVO) or pre-university education (VWO). Under certain conditions, 16 and 17-year-olds may also obtain VAVO qualifications.

2. Dutch as a second language (NT2)
Courses I and II in Dutch as a second language (NT2) train students for the state examination in this subject. This examination is for people whose first language is not Dutch. The purpose of the examination is to show that their proficiency in Dutch is good enough to work or study in the Netherlands. The courses are taught at regional training centres (ROCs).

3. Dutch and arithmetic
The aim of courses in Dutch and arithmetic is to boost literacy and numeracy skills. The classes are held at regional training centres (ROCs) and other educational institutions.

Provision to Raise Achievement in Basic Skills

Courses I and II in Dutch as a second language (NT2)

Courses I and II in Dutch as a second language (NT2) train students for the state examination in this subject. This examination is for people whose first language is not Dutch. The purpose of the examination is to show that their proficiency in Dutch is good enough to work or study in the Netherlands. The courses are taught at regional training centres (ROCs) and other educational institutions. All the examinations are held by the Education Executive Agency (DUO) on behalf of the Examination and Testing Board (CvTE).

Organisation and development
The NT2 examination has been organised by the government since 1992 and is the responsibility of the Minister of Education, Culture & Science. The Examination and Testing Board (CvTE) is responsible for organising and developing the state examinations in Dutch as a second language, and for designing the content.

The examination assignments are produced by the National Institute for Educational Measurement (CITO) and Bureau ICE, an educational testing organisation. CITO is responsible for the listening and speaking tests, while Bureau ICE is responsible for reading and writing. CITO also trains examiners for the speaking tests and facilitates the assessment and processing of results for this component. The listening component is assessed automatically via the computer. The result processing is also monitored by CITO.

CITO conducts studies to monitor the quality of the state examinations in Dutch as a second language. For a list of current reports, go to the CITO website (only in Dutch available).
The CvTE arranges for some of its tasks in the field of NT2 to be carried out by DUO (only in Dutch available).

Programmes I and II
There are two study programmes for Dutch as a second language. Programme I caters for people who want to work or study at secondary vocational education level (MBO) – equivalent to B1 in the Common European Framework of Reference for modern languages Programme II caters for people who want to work or study at higher professional or university level – equivalent to B2 in the Common European Framework of Reference.

The examination consists of four tests: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Click here for more information about the four tests [link toevoegen]. The listening and speaking tests are done on the computer. The writing test is done partly on the computer and partly on paper. For the reading test, the candidate has to read texts from a booklet and answer questions on the computer.

Sample examinations and practice material: content
Sample state examinations for Programmes I and II are available online. They give a complete overview of the content, format and level of difficulty of the examinations. Each sample exam contains a full set of tests, with assignments like those in the real examination. The assessment protocol gives information about the conditions under which the examinations are conducted, the assessment models and the pass level.
Students can practise independently at home with the sample examinations and check their answers using the key. The sample material can also be used for classroom practice by examination candidates. The teacher will check the results but in class, students can assess each other using the protocols.

Click here for the sample examinations (only in Dutch available).

About five weeks after the examination, the candidate is sent the result, which is either ‘pass’ or ‘fail’. The candidate receives a certificate for every test that they have passed. If they pass all four tests in one go, they are eligible for the NT2 diploma. If they fail any of the tests, they must resit them. Candidates who have passed all four tests can send their individual test certificates to DUO and exchange them for an NT2 diploma.

NT2 admission requirements
In principle, the NT2 state examinations are for speakers of other languages aged 17 and over who want to show that their command of Dutch is sufficient for study or work purposes. On the day of the examination, candidates must bring along a valid original identity document, such as a passport, residence permit or municipal identity card.

There is no compulsory preparation for the NT2 state examinations (I and II). Candidates may follow a language or exam training course if they wish, but they may also study independently at home before taking the examination.

Comparison of NT2 state examinations with other benchmark levels
The content and level of Programmes I and II for the NT2 state examinations were compared with the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the Frame of Reference for Literacy and Numeracy by the Meijerink Commission. Its research revealed that CEFR levels B1 and B2 and the levels of Programmes I and II for the NT2 state examinations equate to levels 2F and 3F of the Dutch government’s Frame of Reference for Literacy and Numeracy. In the Netherlands, the NT2 Framework is also used as a benchmark.

Information and advice
Information about the NT2 state examinations is published jointly by the Steunpunt NT2 support office and ITTA knowledge centre ITTA, through

  • a newsletter (Nieuwsbrief Staatsexamens NT2)
  • a leaflet that lists all current NT2 training courses and relevant addresses (Adressenoverzicht cursussen en examentrainingen Staatsexamens NT2)
  • the website www.staatsexamensnt2
  • publications in magazines and other media

NT2 examinations support office: info@itta.uva.nl/ tel. +31 (0)20 525 3844

NT2 state examination fees
The fees for three NT2 state examinations are €45 per test. The examination fees for the four tests (listening, speaking, reading and writing) amount to €180. The fees will normally be paid by the individual candidate but in principle they may also be paid by the school or training institute, the municipal social services or a refugee organisation.


Dutch literacy and numeracy courses

Courses in Dutch and arithmetic train candidates to levels 1F or 2F. Municipalities are responsible for providing training. The classes are held at a regional training centre (ROC) or other educational provider.

Standards and attainment objectives

On 1 January 2013 standards and attainment objectives were introduced by law for courses in Dutch language and arithmetic for the adult education sector.
In August 2010 the Benchmark Levels for Literacy and Numeracy for the learning trajectory from primary up to and including secondary vocational education were enshrined in law: the Benchmark Levels for Literacy and Numeracy Act, and the affiliated examination decree for secondary vocational education, for the adult vocational education sector. The Act describes what learners must know in the subjects Dutch language and arithmetic at various stages in their school career. Thus, the benchmark framework serves as a guideline for schools, teachers and education programmes in primary education, secondary education, special education and secondary vocational education, and forms the basis for continuous learning trajectories in Dutch language and arithmetic. The benchmark levels were introduced to improve learners' literacy and numeracy skills. Collectively, the reference levels make up the Benchmark Framework for Literacy and Numeracy (only in Dutch available), which is the educational basis for literacy and numeracy teaching in the Netherlands.

To extend these statutory benchmark levels to adult education, and as part of the 2012-2015 Functional Illiteracy Action Plan, levels 1F and 2F were officially adopted for adult education literacy courses and as the base-level for attainment targets in vocational education.
The standards and attainment targets make it possible to map an adult learner's level in Dutch, maths and digital skills. The foundations for the standards and attainment objectives were laid by the Benchmark Frame for Literacy and Numeracy (Meijerink 2010). This is the statutory standard for literacy and numeracy education in the Netherlands. The standards and attainment targets also equate to the levels in the Dutch Qualification Framework.
The standards described in the official protocols lay the basis for the attainment targets. They describe the level of individual language or arithmetic tasks. Attainment targets indicate what are learner is supposed to know at the end of a course of study.

In practice, the standards and the attainment targets are virtually identical. This is because the Benchmark Frame for Literacy and Numeracy describes the level in terms of functional language and arithmetical tasks, and because the exit level of the adult education courses is level 1F or 2F. For example, for 1F Writing, the standard is described as follows: ‘[the learner] can write a letter, a card, an e-mail and a message on internet to ask for and give information, express thanks, express congratulations, express condolences, and send an invitation’. This description identifies concrete and functional writing tasks. In effect, it expresses what the learner needs to know by the end of the literacy course in Dutch.
Click here for more information on standards and attainment objectives in adult education. A more detailed description of the attainment targets for Dutch literacy and numeracy can be found in the text of the ministerial order.

Who pays for adult education courses?
The fees for adult education courses are normally paid by the participants themselves. The exact amount depends on the type of course and on the participant's personal situation.
In some cases it is possible to obtain a grant towards study costs or to deduct them from income tax.
Sometimes, a municipality will cover all or part of the course fees, for example if the participant needs a certificate in order to get a job, and is already long-term unemployed. In other cases, the fees may be paid by an employer, for example if having a better knowledge of Dutch would enable the participant to perform better in their job.

Provision to Achieve a Recognised Qualification during Adulthood

 

Adult general secondary education (VAVO) caters for secondary school pupils who have failed their exams, and for adults who wish to obtain a secondary education qualification. In certain cases 16 and 17-year-olds may also be eligible to participate in VAVO courses. VAVO also caters for pupils who are unable to cope in mainstream education. In principle, VAVO is open to all adults who wish to further their own development.
Adult education caters for people aged 18 and over who wish to obtain a full or partial qualification in pre-vocational secondary education (VMBO, theoretical programme), senior general secondary education (HAVO) or pre-university education (VWO). Some schools offer part-time day or evening courses, so that students can combine their learning timetable with work or other obligations. There are also intensive courses available, such as a one-year HAVO programme which would normally take two years.

VAVO admission requirements
In principle, adult general secondary education caters for people aged 18 and over and living in the Netherlands, who want to obtain a secondary-education qualification. Under certain conditions, 16 and 17-year-olds may also be eligible for VAVO courses.

VAVO for 16 and 17-year-olds
Under certain circumstances, secondary schools are allowed to detach 16 and 17-year-old pupils to VAVO. A school will first consult the pupil to see whether this is the best option. These tend to be young people who for a variety of reasons have difficulty coping with mainstream secondary education. To prevent the pupil leaving without any qualifications at all, VAVO offers an alternative learning route. The pupil remains enrolled at their secondary school but attends classes with an adult education provider. The secondary school remains responsible for the pupil.
Adult education admission for 16 and 17-year-olds is regulated in the ministerial order on cooperation in secondary education and adult education. More information about detachment to VAVO can be found in the brochure on this subject (in Dutch only).

Funding of VAVO
Providers of adult general secondary education (VAVO) receive a single lump sum from the government to cover personnel and material costs.

The lump sum is based on the total number of secondary vocational education and adult education providers. The board of the individual institution then decides on how the funding is to be spent. This enables institutions to tailor their policy and teaching to the local situation. In allocating budgets in adult and vocational education (BVE), due account is taken of:

  • • the number of pupils enrolled;
  • • the number of certificates issued;
  • • preparatory and support activities (this budget caters for pupils who need extra assistance);
  • • teaching premises and facilities.

The following providers of adult and vocational education receive funding from central government:

  • • regional training centres (ROCs);
  • • specialist training colleges;
  • • agricultural training colleges (AOCs).

The budgets for adults and vocational education are calculated collectively because these VAVO courses are taught at MBO schools or ROCs.

Fees for full-time VAVO courses
Students pay course fees if they are 18 or older on 1 August of the year in which the course starts, and attending full-time adult general secondary education (VAVO).  For the current and next academic year, the fees are as follows:
2014/2015 - €1,118
2015/2016 - €1,131

Fees for part-time VAVO courses
Students pay course fees if they are 18 or older on 1 August of the year in which the course starts, and attending part-time adult general secondary education (VAVO).

Course fees are charged if the student is attending a part-time course (less than 850 classroom hours per year) in adult general second education and is aged 18 or above. The exact sum is recorded in the education agreement.
A student who is under 18 on the first day (1 August) of the school year in which the course starts is not charged for fees in that school year. In other words, VAVO is free of charge for students aged under 18.

Provision Targeting the Transition to the Labour Market

Promoting mobility between economic sectors
When people change jobs they tend to stay in the same economic sector or opt for a new job that is similar to their current one. Inter-sectoral mobility in the Netherlands is low in comparison to other countries. For example, there are twice as many job changes between sectors in the United States as in the Netherlands, and three times as many in the United Kingdom. Although job changes are not an end in themselves, they can help to improve the functioning of the labour market, especially in periods of potential or actual unemployment. So it is desirable for people to be able to change jobs or sectors as easily as possible, even if this requires retraining or in-service training.

The Work and Security Act creates a fairer and more proactive social security system, in which investment in employability yields greater returns. In response to a parliamentary motion by MPs Weyenberg and Hamer, an amendment to this law was introduced. Employers now have a statutory obligation to provide any training necessary to enable an employee to perform satisfactorily in their job and – as far as this can reasonably be expected of the employer – in order to continue the employment contract, even if the employee's job ceases to exist or their performance falls below par.
In addition, the introduction of a transition allowance is an excellent way of equipping the employer to prevent unemployment and of allowing the unemployed to invest in training geared to a different kind of work, while they are still unemployed. After all, by investing in training during unemployment, an unemployed person boosts their chances of finding a job. The government therefore believes that transition allowances should be spent on activities geared to promoting job opportunities, even for alternative occupations and sectors, if labour market developments make this necessary.

Furthermore, under certain conditions, an investment by an employer in making an employee more broadly employable before their contract is terminated can be deducted from the financial entitlement to a transition allowance. Furthermore, under certain conditions, it will also be possible for money invested by the employer in making the employee more employable before their contract is terminated. This encourages employers to invest in making their staff more broadly employable while they are still in work. To prevent any obstacles to potential vocational training placements, the law also stipulates that chain supply regulations do not apply to employment agreements made in connection with block or day release courses (BBL) for students in pre-vocational training. Sector plans are also investing substantially in retraining employed people or training them to a higher level within their current job situation. This means providing in-house or external training to teach general workplace skills for a specific occupation. However, government cofinancing does not cover company-specific training courses.

The first tranche of sector plans already approved by the government includes:
• 63,000 retraining and in-service training courses
• over 7,000 ‘career checks’ (including assessment and advice)
• over 1,200 certificates for non-formally acquired competences (EVCs)
• 450 courses aimed at training older people and making younger people more employable.

As part of the drive to initiate transitions on the labour market, the government is introducing the following measures:
The third tranche of the sector plans will focus on promoting transitions from work to work and from unemployment to work. This will also create opportunities for jobseekers who are not receiving unemployment benefit. Sectors that invest in retraining or in-service training for new staff may be eligible for government co-financing. The details of the scheme for co-financing sector plans still has to be fleshed out in detail in consultation with social partners. To give an extra boost to work-to-work transitions, the government is introducing new bridging unemployment insurance legislation within the sector plans. This extra support will cut costs for employers seeking to recruit staff from a different occupational field or sector. The new bridging legislation will make it easier to change jobs and will entail substantial retraining. In coordination with the third tranche of sector plans, the bridging legislation offers prospects of a job in another sector or another occupational field for people who are currently unemployed. It also helps employers to fill difficult vacancies, for instance in the engineering and technology sector. Ultimately, they will be contributing to a better functioning labour market.

Training incentives for people in work
The current situation on the labour market means that people need to devote greater attention to upgrading their knowledge and skills during their career. With this in mind the government is introducing the following measure to encourage adults to obtain additional educational qualifications while they are still in work:

Lifelong learning credit scheme
The introduction of the lifelong learning credit scheme, as outlined in the government’s recent agreement, enables new categories of students who are no longer entitled to student finance to take out loans to finance their tuition fees (for higher education) or school fees (for secondary vocational education). This removes the financial barrier for students who are no longer eligible for student finance, including tuition fee loans, but are keen to learn in order to transition to a different economic sector or obtain a higher educational qualification. It also enables the unemployed, such as women returning to work after having children, to invest in themselves. The introduction of the lifelong learning credit scheme comes in response to the Rinnoy Kan Commission’s proposal to make tuition fee loans accessible to part-time students. The lifelong learning credit scheme will be introduced in the 2017/2018 academic year.

This information is elaborated in the government’s letter to parliament on lifelong learning (only in Dutch available).

Provision of Liberal (Popular) Adult Education

A Volksuniversiteit (litt. folk university) is an institute for non-formal adult education. The course programmes are open for everyone, regardless of previous training, age or background. The courses are taken in groups with other students in an informal atmosphere, which makes learning easier and more pleasant. Courses in a Volksuniversiteit are not specially geared towards obtaining diplomas or degrees. The main purpose is to spend your free time in a useful way.

The Volksuniversiteiten offer a wide variety of courses given by expert teachers. There are nearly 100 Volksuniversiteiten, 85 of which are member of the BNVU (= Dutch Association of Volksuniversiteiten). These BNVU-members annually reach a total of about 180.000 students.
All members are independent foundations with a ‘not for profit’ policy.

Quite a few Dutch local governments have acknowledged the importance of the Volksuniversiteit in their local cultural scene and have granted financial or material aid. Not all local governments have opted for such a policy. As a result, prices between the various Volksuniversiteiten may differ.

 

Other Types of Publicly Subsidised Provision for Adult Learners

To make it more attractive for adults to continue learning throughout their career, it is vital to create a better match between the educational requirements of the individual and the demands of the labour market. Long courses do not appeal to working people, particularly if some of the time is devoted to teaching knowledge and skills that they already have. There is a need for tailor-made courses that reflect the reality and requirements of the workplace and facilitate online learning. People also want phased learning in the form of study modules. This enables them to combine their study activities more effectively with the peaks and dips in their work and private lives, and to obtain a qualification by accumulating module credits.

Greater flexibility in part-time higher education
The government is creating scope for public and private higher education institutions to make their part-time courses more flexible. The focus will be on what people need to know and are capable of learning, on educational content, and on the level of knowledge and skills they want to reach. This will make it possible to introduce greater variety into learning pathways, while ensuring that learning outcomes meet all the requirements. For example, learning pathways can be tailored to the knowledge and skills the working person has already acquired, learning activities can be adapted to workplace opportunities and employers’ requirements, and online learning can be used to full advantage.

The current regulations about working from fixed study programmes provided and arranged by the institution and completing a fixed number of study hours, are to be abolished. The current statutory frameworks require students to operate according to a fixed provision of study programmes: this makes it very difficult to create flexible, tailor-made learning pathways.

The government is initiating the change process by introducing a range of flexibility pilot schemes. They will be used to investigate how best to formulate the new frameworks, in order to assure the quality of flexible education and assessment of learning outcomes. The Netherlands-Flanders Accreditation Organisation (NVAO) and the Education Inspectorate are therefore closely involved in the pilot projects. Public and private education providers have responded enthusiastically and are keen to take part. For them, quality assurance and the direct involvement of the NVAO and Education Inspectorate are extremely important.
For the benefit of the pilot projects, a temporary incentive scheme will be developed, along with an order in council based on the section of the Higher Education and Research Act (WHW) that governs educational experiments. Education providers will be informed as soon as possible to allow them to get started on developing demand for the pilot programmes. Within the framework of the temporary incentive scheme, publicly funded and privately funded institutions will be eligible for government grants. The government intends to introduce the pilot programmes in the 2015/2016 academic year, for a duration of five years. After the evaluation, a decision will be made on whether to anchor them in national legislation.

The pilot schemes for making higher education more flexible also include an option for accrediting courses that currently form part of a fully-fledged education programme. These are non-government funded courses leading to an HBO bachelor’s degree, which cater for a need on the labour market. Participating institutions will be allowed to only teach material that leads directly to a qualification, and to only admit adult learners who can demonstrate that they have already have achieved the learning outcomes prescribed at foundation level. A good example of this is the second-grade teacher-training course at Saxion Next institute of higher professional education. Its 120-credit course constitutes part of the full-length programme (equivalent to 240 credits) and is only open to postgraduates. By facilitating accreditation partial, non-publicly funded courses of this kind, the government is speeding up efforts to create short, flexible training programmes in adult higher professional education that cater for a need on the labour market.

Demand-driven funding in part-time higher education
The channelling of funding to part-time students will enable higher-education institutions to focus on becoming more customer-centred. This should lead to a more attractive provision of study programmes and encourage adults to pursue lifelong learning.
In response to the recommendations of the Rinnooy Kan Commission (only in Dutch available), part-time students will receive vouchers worth around €1,250 per 30 study credits, which will enable them to buy education modules at publicly or privately funded institutions. Higher education providers involved in the demand-driven funding experiment will be allowed to offer modular study programmes, recruit and enrol students for phased participation in these modules, and teach their courses extramurally. Publicly funded higher education institutions are not currently allowed to do this but will enabled under the new legislation as part of demand-driven funding experiments and with a view to the public-private playing-field.