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Netherlands:Glossary

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary

VVE/ECEC

Vroeg- voorschoolse educatie. The objective of ECEC (Early Childhood Education and Care) is the prevention, early identification and reduction of language and education deficiencies in young children. Early childhood education is aimed at children between 2,5 to 4 years of age. It is carried out through childcare centers and playgroups. The responsibility lies at the municipal level.

Primary education

Primary education covers mainstream primary education (BAO), special primary education (SBAO) and (secondary) special education ((V)SO). Primary education is intended for all children from approximately age 4 up to and including age 12.

Special schools for primary education (SBAO)

Special schools for primary education (SBAO) is meant for children for whom tests have shown that a special remedial education approach is indicated – such that they should be placed in a special primary school, at least for some time.

Special (secondary) education

Special (secondary) education ((V)SO) comprises two school types: special education (SO) and secondary special education (VSO). Both school types are subdivided into various types of education, based on the handicaps or learning impediments of the pupils.

Secondary education

Secondary education (VO)  encompasses schools providing pre-university education (VWO), general secondary education (HAVO), pre-vocational secondary education (VMBO) and elementary vocational training (PRO). HAVO and VWO schools prepare students for subsequent tertiary education programmes.
VMBO comprises four learning pathways: the basic vocational programme (BL), the middle-management vocational programme (KL), the combined programme (GL) and the theoretical programme (TL). These pathways are geared to subsequent MBO programmes. After completing a combined or theoretical programme, students may also transfer to HAVO.

VMBO

(voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs) pre-vocational secondary education

HAVO

(hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs) general secondary education

VWO

(voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs) pre-university education

LWOO

(leerwegondersteunend onderwijs) Learning support (formerly IVBO, since 1999/00 including VSO-LOM)

MAVO

(middelbaar algemeen voortgezet onderwijs) Junior general secondary education

Higher education

Higher education comprises higher professional education (HBO) and university education (WO). These types of education are provided by HBO institutions (hogescholen) and universities respectively.

Higher professional education - HBO

HBO institutions (also known as universities of applied sciences or hogescholen) provide higher professional education. They contribute to the development of those occupations to which their teaching is geared and conduct design and development activities and research related to specific occupations. They provide bachelor’s degree programmes and in some cases master’s degree programmes, and transfer knowledge for the benefit of the community. All higher education institutions are required to pay attention to the personal development of their students and nurture in them a sense of social responsibility. A total of 37 hogescholen currently receive central government funding. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ) is responsible for funding three of these, which provide agricultural and environmental education.

Universities - WO

Research universities focus on academic teaching and research. They train students to become researchers or design engineers, and transfer knowledge for the benefit of the community. Like hogescholen, they pay attention to the personal development of their students and nurture in them a sense of social responsibility.
The national government funds 18 research universities. These include the Open University for distance learning, four theological or humanist universities, three universities of technology, and Wageningen University. The latter is funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Vocational education (MBO)

MBO comprises school-based vocational training (BOL) and block or day-release programmes (BBL). BOL can be taken either full-time or part-time. Within BBL, the focus is on practical training, which takes up 60 per cent or more of the course. MBO courses can be taken at four different qualification levels:

  • assistant level (level 1)
  • basic vocational training (level 2)
  • professional training (level 3)
  • middle-management or specialist training (level 4).

MBO courses are offered in four sectors:

  • personal and social services and health care
  • engineering and technology
  • business
  • agriculture and the natural environment (funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs).

BOL

Full-time vocational training (MBO)

BBL

Block or day-release in secondary vocational education (MBO)

Adult education

Adult education comprises adult general secondary education (VAVO) and adult basic education. VAVO is regarded as “second chance education” (VMBO theoretical programme, HAVO and VWO). Adult basic education comprises broad social functioning, life skills and Dutch as a second language (NT2 or DSL). Adult basic education is a first step towards further training and development.

Attainment targets

These specify the standards of knowledge, understanding and skills pupils are required to attain in primary education (please see 5.2 Teaching and Learning in Primary Education) or the lower years of secondary school (please see 6.2 Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education).

VAVO

Adult general secondary education (VAVO). VAVO is regarded as “second chance education” (VMBO theoretical programme, HAVO and VWO)

The Ministry of Education

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW) works to create a smart, skilled and creative environment in the Netherlands. Its mission is to ensure that everyone gets a good education and is prepared for responsibility and independence. The Ministry also wants people to enjoy the arts, and aims to create the right conditions for teachers, artists and researchers to do their work.

DUO

Dienst uitvoering onderwijs, governmental implementation agency for the education sector (DUO)

CBS

Statistics Netherlands (Dutch central bureau of statistics)

ROCs

Regional Training Centres

Publicly run schools

  • are open to all children regardless of religion or outlook;
  • are generally subject to public law;
  • are governed by the municipal council (or a governing committee) or by a public legal entity or foundation set up by the council;
  • provide education on behalf of the state. See also chapter 2.1 Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Privately run schools

  • can refuse to admit pupils whose parents do not subscribe to the belief or ideology on which the school’s teaching is based;
  • are subject to private law and are state-funded although not set up by the state; 
  • are governed by the board of the association or foundation that set them up;
  • base their teaching on religious or ideological beliefs and include Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, Hindustani and Steiner-Waldorf schools; See also chapter 2.1 Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Education 2032

In February 2015, the State Secretary of Education, Culture and Science appointed an advisory commission, Platform Onderwijs2032, which was instructed to conduct a thorough public consultation examining the form and content of primary and secondary education in the Netherlands. The objective was to identify the knowledge and skills that young people must acquire if they are to function effectively in a rapidly changing society. The Platform invited teachers, students, school administrators, parents, civil society organizations, and representatives of the private and cultural sectors to take part in a number of discussion meetings. In producing this advisory report, the Platform has also drawn upon the latest insights in educational science and best practice examples from home and abroad. For more recent information please  visit: http://onsonderwijs2032.nl/

Vocational Secondary Education Qualification files

Qualification files constitute the vocational qualification structure (BKS). These  files are learner-based, specifying the competences, knowledge and skills the junior practitioner must possess in order to be qualified for the occupation in question. The examination tests whether the candidate can carry out occupational tasks appropriately and whether they have the competences and underpinning knowledge necessary for the job.