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Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

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Overview Netherlands

Contents

Netherlands:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Netherlands:Historical Development

Netherlands:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Netherlands:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Netherlands:Political and Economic Situation

Netherlands:Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Netherlands:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Netherlands:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Netherlands:Organisation of Private Education

Netherlands:National Qualifications Framework

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Netherlands:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Netherlands:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Netherlands:Funding in Education

Netherlands:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Netherlands:Higher Education Funding

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training Funding

Netherlands:Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Primary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in Primary Education

Netherlands:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Netherlands:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Netherlands:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education (MBO)

Netherlands:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Netherlands:Higher Education

Netherlands:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Netherlands:First Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Bachelor

Netherlands:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Netherlands:Second Cycle Programmes

Netherlands:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Netherlands:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Netherlands:Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Distribution of Responsibilities

Netherlands:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Netherlands:Main Providers

Netherlands:Main Types of Provision

Netherlands:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Netherlands:Teachers and Education Staff

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Management and Other Education Staff

Netherlands:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Netherlands:Management Staff for Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Netherlands:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Quality Assurance

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Netherlands:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Educational Support and Guidance

Netherlands:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Netherlands:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Netherlands:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Netherlands:Mobility and Internationalisation

Netherlands:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Higher Education

Netherlands:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Netherlands:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Netherlands:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Netherlands:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Netherlands:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Netherlands:National Reforms in School Education

Netherlands:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Netherlands:National Reforms in Higher Education

Netherlands:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Netherlands:European Perspective

Netherlands:Legislation

Netherlands:Institutions

Netherlands:Bibliography

Netherlands:Glossary


Entry to the profession

Pay and conditions negotiations

The conditions of service and legal status of education personnel in both the public and private sectors are determined partly at suprasectoral and sectoral level and partly at decentralised and institutional level. Employers’ organisations and trade unions in the education sector negotiate at decentralised level. The competent authority and the federations of public service and education unions representing the staff of the institutions for which that particular competent authority is responsible negotiate at institutional level. 


Some aspects of pay and working conditions are regulated per sector, as provided for by various education acts and sector-specific framework decree. The social partners (employers’ organisations and trade unions) conclude collective agreements without the mediation of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science.


Conditions of service of teachers

 In almost all educational sectors, primary and secondary conditions of service have been decentralised. The conditions of service and legal status of education personnel (e.g. teachers, specialist teachers, head teachers, teaching assistants, technical assistants, ICT managers, caretakers, internal counsellors and therapists) in both public-authority and privately run institutions are determined at decentralised level in sectoral collective agreements. Where possible and desirable, these agreements leave room for further elaboration at school-board level. Employers’ organisations and trade unions in the education sector negotiate at sectoral level. The competent authority and the federations of public service and education unions representing the staff of the institutions for which that particular competent authority is responsible negotiate at institutional level. There are thus, for the time being, three levels of negotiation:
● negotiations at central government level (central collective agreement for the educational sector (primary education);
● negotiations on sectoral collective agreements between employers’ organisations and trade unions in the education and science sector;
● negotiations between competent authorities of institutions and federations of public service and education unions.


Access

Generally speaking, teachers applying for a job in a given sector of education must possess a certificate qualifying them to teach the subject or subjects in question at that level. Teachers in higher professional education are required to have an HBO or university degree and a certificate of education. Teachers in adult and vocational education who have not trained as a teacher must have a certificate of education. Apart from the relevant teaching qualifications, teachers must be able to produce a certificate of good conduct.


Teachers who are not yet fully qualified may also be appointed on a temporary basis. They are usually lateral-entry teachers. Under the Education Professions Act (WBIO), which entered into force in August 2006, teachers can only be appointed after they have submitted a higher education certificate showing that they meet the standards of competence for the duties they will perform. For that reason, teacher training courses now issue certificates clearly specifying which of the standards of competence the holder meets as well as the subject or subject area he or she is qualified to teach. Holders of teaching certificates issued before August 2006 are deemed to meet the standards of competence and therefore continue to be eligible for appointment.


Induction

Evaluation of teachers

Teachers are appointed by school boards, which are themselves responsible for personnel policy and for recruiting, training and evaluating their staff. Evaluation involves:
● job performance interviews, during which teachers discuss their performance with their heads, and look at their prospects for the future and
● assessment interviews during which the teacher’s performance in the period preceding the interview is assessed.
The information given below is taken from the fourth survey of integrated personnel policy in primary and secondary education, held in 2005.


Job performance interviews

Most schools regularly hold job performance interviews with their teaching staff, in most cases once every two years. Information on a teacher’s performance is mainly supplied by the individual concerned.


Assessment interviews

Assessment interviews are held once a year. Some schools do not hold separate assessment interviews, but assess their teachers during their job performance interviews. The criteria used in assessing staff include attitude towards colleagues, and professional development. Heads also like to have measurable indicators of the performance of individual teachers and their staff as a whole.


Consequences may be attached to assessments. For temporary staff, the results may determine whether their contracts are extended, terminated or made permanent. Teachers may also be asked to undergo coaching, or accept a transfer to another job.

Professional status

 Teaching staff in public-authority schools and institutions are formally public sector personnel; they are public servants within the meaning of the Central and Local Government Personnel Act. Their appointment is a unilateral legal act by the government. Staff at private schools, on the other hand, are employees, not public servants. They are appointed under a contract of employment signed by them and their employer. Within a given educational sector, the same agreements on terms and conditions of employment apply to teaching staff regardless of whether they are public servants or employees. For private schools, these agreements constitute a collective labour agreement. For public-authority schools, they are adopted by the employer as legal status regulations.


Supporting measures

School boards are themselves responsible for their personnel policies and for supervising new teachers.


Salaries

Every post in education has a corresponding salary scale, determined in accordance with the job evaluation system specified in the relevant sectoral collective agreement. The salary scale is determined by the content and difficulty of the work in question. Before a member of staff can reach the maximum salary amount he or she must move up through a number of salary amounts in keeping with a given career pattern.


Working time and leave arrangements

Working time

On 1 August 1998 the standard number of hours to be worked per year (standard working year) was fixed at 1,659 for all sectors of education. Staff are appointed to a standard full-time teaching post or a part-time post, expressed as a ‘working hours factor’. Ten percent of a teacher’s actual working hours are available for professional development.


When the standard number of hours was reduced, teachers could acquire an additional leave entitlement by working more hours than the number for which they were appointed. This additional leave may be taken during the course of the year (additional annual leave) or saved up (accumulated leave).


Leave arrangements

There are various leave arrangements for education personnel:
● Holiday leave: teaching staff enjoy paid leave during school holidays and on national and religious holidays.
● Sick leave: in principle, all staff on sick leave continue to receive their full pay for up to 18 months. After 12 months, they receive 70% of their pay for the hours not worked due to disability. When a member of staff has been unfit for work for 12 consecutive months, a medical examination is carried out to ascertain whether they are entitled to benefit payments under the Invalidity Insurance Act (WAO).
● Maternity leave: Female staff are entitled to sixteen consecutive weeks of maternity leave. The period of leave must begin at least four weeks before the due date.
● Parental leave: parents of children under the age of 8 can opt to take parental leave. Parents may choose either not to work at all for a consecutive period of time or to work fewer hours a week for up to 12 months. No salary is paid for the hours not worked. As of 1 August 2001, parents may take paid parental leave for a quarter of their working hours.
● Additional annual leave, accumulated leave, age-related leave: teaching staff in primary, secondary, special, adult and vocational education may choose between taking the additional leave due to them in lieu of a shorter working week on an annual basis (additional annual leave) or saving it up (accumulated leave). Primary and special school teachers may use their accumulated leave to take a consecutive period of leave (sabbatical) or, from the age of 52, to work fewer hours a week over several years (age-related leave), possibly in combination with the scheme to promote employment among older people (BAPO). Similar arrangements apply in secondary education and adult and vocational education.
● Other leave entitlement: the competent authority must grant teachers paid leave in certain cases, for example when they get married or upon the death of a close relative. The competent authority may also grant unpaid leave.


Promotion, advancement

With the introduction of the personnel budget, schools have more scope to give their teachers a performance-related allowance or bonus. They may decide to do so on the basis of an assessment. It is up to the school to decide under what conditions bonuses or allowances will be granted, and how much money they are prepared to spend on them.


Dismissal

There are various statutory provisions relating to dismissal, with the details set out for each sector in the relevant collective agreement (CAO).


Retirement and pensions

As a rule, everyone in the Netherlands retires at the age of 65 and is then entitled to an old age pension under the General Old Age Pensions Act (AOW). Education personnel in both the public and private sectors also receive a supplementary pension from the pension fund for public servants and education personnel, the ABP Pension Fund. From 1 January 2004, pensions have been calculated on the basis of average salary. Pension entitlements (i.e. old age and surviving dependants’ pension, and invalidity pension) built up before that date are calculated on the basis of final salary. Teachers and other staff start to build up their pension on entering service.


Tax laws were changed on 1 January 2006. Employees born after 1 January 1950 are no longer eligible for tax relief on contributions to early retirement schemes. As a result, the flexible pension and retirement scheme has been discontinued.


The supplementary old age pension provisions have been strengthened due to the discontinuation of the flexible pension and retirement scheme and now include a flexible pension age, part-time pensions, and greater opportunities to exchange old age and surviving dependants’ pension entitlements.

Since September 2008, the ABP Pension Fund, like many other pension funds, has been hit hard by the credit crisis. Its funding level fell from 140% at the close of 2007 to 90% at the close of 2008, making it necessary to draw up a recovery plan in March 2009. The plan is designed to ensure that the Fund has a funding level of at least 105% after five years and at least 125% within fifteen years. The funding level at year-end 2010 was around 105%.