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Montenegro:Overview

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Overview Montenegro

Contents

Montenegro:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Montenegro:Historical Development

Montenegro:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Montenegro:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Montenegro:Political and Economic Situation

Montenegro:Organisation and Governance

Montenegro:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Montenegro:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Montenegro:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Montenegro:Organisation of Private Education

Montenegro:National Qualifications Framework

Montenegro:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Montenegro:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Montenegro:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Montenegro:Funding in Education

Montenegro:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Montenegro:Higher Education Funding

Montenegro:Adult Education and Training Funding

Montenegro:Early Childhood Education and Care

Montenegro:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 3 years

Montenegro:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Montenegro:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 3 years

Montenegro:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 3 years

Montenegro:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Montenegro:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 3 years

Montenegro:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Montenegro:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Montenegro:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Montenegro:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Montenegro:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Montenegro:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Montenegro:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Montenegro:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Montenegro:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Montenegro:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Montenegro:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Montenegro:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Montenegro:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Montenegro:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Montenegro:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Montenegro:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Montenegro:Higher Education

Montenegro:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Montenegro:First Cycle Programmes

Montenegro:Bachelor

Montenegro:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Montenegro:Second Cycle Programmes

Montenegro:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Montenegro:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Montenegro:Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Distribution of Responsibilities

Montenegro:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Montenegro:Main Providers

Montenegro:Main Types of Provision

Montenegro:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Montenegro:Teachers and Education Staff

Montenegro:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Montenegro:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Montenegro:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Montenegro:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro: Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Management and Other Education Staff

Montenegro:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Montenegro:Management Staff for Higher Education

Montenegro:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Montenegro:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Quality Assurance

Montenegro:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Montenegro:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Educational Support and Guidance

Montenegro:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Montenegro:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Montenegro:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Montenegro:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Montenegro:Mobility and Internationalisation

Montenegro:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Mobility in Higher Education

Montenegro:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Montenegro:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Montenegro:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Montenegro:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Montenegro:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Montenegro:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Montenegro:National Reforms in School Education

Montenegro:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Montenegro:National Reforms in Higher Education

Montenegro:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Montenegro:European Perspective

Montenegro:Legislation

Montenegro:Glossary

 

Montenegro: Overview

Key Features

Educational policy is created at the central level. Ministry of Education is responsible for the overall educational policy.

Public financing of the up-to-the-university education is carried out entirely from the central level, with some contribution from the local self-governments. As regards financing of the public higher education institutions (HEIs), the Government, upon the opinion of the Council for Higher Education, determines the amount of funds for financing of public institutions and students at those institutions for each academic year.

Allocation for education from GDP is around 4.5%.

Educatonal providers: Education and upbringing is provided in preschool institution, school, educational centre, resource centre, by adult education provider,universities, faculties, academy of art and upper secondary non tertiary schools, all of which can be public or private.

At up to the university public educational institutions, education is of secular character and the religious activity is not allowed except in the secondary religious schools.

Equity:Montenegrin citizens are equal in their rights to education, irrespective of nationality, race, sex, language, religion, social background or other personal ability. Foreign citizens who have short-term residence or permanently reside in Montenegro, are equal in their rights to education with Montenegrin citizens. As regards  higher education, a foreigner is entitled to be enrolled into study programme in Montenegro under the same conditions as Montenegrin citizens, in compliance with the Law on Higher Education and statute of an institution.

Language of instruction: Teaching in educational institutions is performed in the official,Montenegrin language. Teaching is also performed in languages in  official use: Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian.

Curriculum: Education and upbringing are provided on the basis of the educational programs (curricula)  adopted by the Ministry of Education upon the recommendation of the relevant council. As regards higher education,accreditation of astudy program is done by the Council for Higher Education,  upon the proposal of the HEI.

Autonomy: Up-to-the-university institutions are autonomous in realization of educational programs. Autonomy of the HEIs is guaranteed by the Constitution and the Law on Higher Education.

Quality Assurance (QA): QA of the educational work in the institution is done internally and externally. Internal quality assessment is performed by the institution itself.  External assessment is carried out by the responsible public bodies or authorized agencies. Ministry of Education regulates methodology for both internal and external evaluation.

Trends and reforms: Education is seen as a key factor of the societal development and Montenegro is continuously implementing reforms in this area in order to make educational system compliant with modern trends and quality. In recent years, reforms have been done at all levels of education. Reforms were preceded by adoption of new laws and amendments and changes for the appropriate level of education, and its harmonization with EU legislation.

Future trends and efforts in education area in Montenegro will relate to the following:

  • Further development of social partnership and active involvement of partners in planning, organization and implementation of education and training
  • Improvement of flexibility of VET through developmentof modularized curricula based on key competences
  • Early school leaving prevention
  • Development of career guidance system for all types of education
  • Improvement of initial and continuing professional training of teachers withspecial attention dedicated to the education of teachers of practical training
  • Defining enrolment policy to better reflect labour market needs as well as Montenegrin mid-term and long-term development policy requirements
  • Improvement of working conditions at schools, school equipmentand teaching aids upgrading and development of textbooks and relevant learning materials
  • Mobility and internationalisation
  • Recognition of non-formal and informal education.
Educational stages

Description of the Stages

The education system of Montenegro consists of pre-school education, primary education, general secondary education, upper secondary vocational education, upper secondary non tertiary education and higher education. Adult education is part of the overall system and is being implemented for all levels of education.

  • Pre-school education is implemented in crèche (children up to 3 years of age) and kindergarten (for children from 3 to 6 years of age) divided into groups according to age. Pre-school education is not a prerequisite to attend primary school
  • Primary education is compulsory and it’s free for all children aged 6 to 15 years. It lasts for nine years divided into three cycles, which means that in Montenegro primary and lower secondary education are organised as asingle structure system
  • General secondary education is performed in high schools - gymnasiums. This education is not compulsory. Gymnasiums may enrol persons who have completed primary education and are younger than 17. Education in high school lasts for four years
  • Secondary vocational education is also not mandatory, and is implemented in a period of two, three or four years in secondary vocational schools. Secondary vocational education is also performed in art schools
  • Higher education is acquired at the University of Montenegro as a public university, two private universities, nine individual private faculties and one individual public faculty. At the public university, tuition fee for a certain number of students is provided from the State Budget, while other students bear the cost of tuition.

Education of Children with Special EducationalNeeds

Education of children with special educational needs (SEN children) is part of a single educational system and it is compulsory from the moment of identifying a special education need of a child. Education of SEN children is carried out in preschool institution, institutions of primary and secondary general and vocational education, as well as in resource centre.This type of education is provided for a specific level of education which corresponds to SEN children physical, intellectual, emotional and social development.Space, equipment and teaching material must be adapted to SEN children and there is obligation for schools to provide adequate educational conditions.

Part-time Education in the Arts (Public Music Schools)

Primary music schools offer part-time education as an additional education of primary school level children. This kind of education is taken voluntary. Children from the age of 6 may take this course on the basis of the entrance examination showing basic prerequisites or talents for a certain musical instrument, ballet or singing. At public primary music schools no fees are required.  

Structure of the national education system

2016 diagram ME.pngsource: Eurydice 2016

Useful links

Ministry of Education

Bureau of Educational Services

Examination Centre

Centre for Vocational Education

Bureau for Textbooks and Teaching Aids

University of Montenegro

University Donja Gorica

Mediterranean University

School Network

Montenegrin Qualification Framework

Council for Higher Education