This page was last modified on 10 February 2016, at 10:49.

Main Page

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search
Welcome to Eurydice

The Eurydice network’s task is to understand and explain how Europe’s different education systems are organised and how they work.

Through 41 national units based in 37 countries, the network provides descriptions of national education systems, comparative studies devoted to specific topics, indicators and statistics. More About us The work of the Eurydice network is co-funded under the Erasmus+ programme.


Reports and studies on education in Europe


Description of national education systems


Browse by topic

Latest News


2015 - Eurydice publications

Date of publication: 12 February 2016

Last year, Eurydice published a number of reports on various educational topics ranging from early childhood education and care to higher education. 
An overview of our 2015 publications is now available. With just one click, you can easily get access to all our reports!



Greece – New law applying to wages of public primary and secondary education teachers 

A new law (4354/2015) on 'Management of non-performing loans, wage settlements and other urgent regulatory provisions concerning the agreement of budgetary objectives and structural reforms' has recently been voted in Greece. It refers to the changes that will be introduced to public sector wages coming into effect from 1 January 2016.



National Sheets on Education Budgets in Europe – 2015

Date of publication: 7 January 2016

The report on Education Budgets in Europe for 2015 provides the most recent data on planned education budgets by country. It makes it possible to identify changes in education budgets within a country between 2014 and 2015. National education budgets are presented by type of expenditure and education level.

Information covers 26 EU Member States as well as other countries participating in the Eurydice network.



Lithuania: An experimental “class voucher” methodology aimed at solving education funding problems will be tested 

The financing principle “the money follows the pupil” or better known as the “pupil voucher” implemented in Lithuania has been criticised for a number of years. With the decreasing number of pupils in schools, particularly in rural areas, this fails indeed to ensure equal financing. In fact, it often encourages educational establishments to compete with each other by simply reducing the requirements for students rather than improving the quality of education, as schools are interested in attracting a pupil and so the “pupil voucher”. 



The Netherlands – Greater scope for specialist secondary school teachers to teach in primary education 

In the Netherlands, teachers with a qualification to teach in secondary education will now also be able to teach their specialist subject in primary education. This means that talented children will be introduced at a younger age to subjects like physics, and that pupils will be better prepared for the transition to secondary education. The new measures approved by the Cabinet come in response to the proposal submitted by the State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science. These measures are due to be introduced on 1 August 2016.



Denmark – New reform of vocational education and training programmes 

A reform of vocational education and training programmes came into force in Denmark on 1 August 2015. It aims at ensuring high quality vocational education and training as well as improving opportunities for further education.



Germany – Literacy Decade proclaimed 

The Federal and Länder governments want to significantly improve literacy skills amongst adults in Germany over the next ten years. To this end, the former National Literacy and Basic Education Strategy will be transformed into a Literacy Decade.



Sweden – National Qualifications Framework introduced 

Sweden introduced a National Qualifications Framework (Sveriges referensram för kvalifikationer, SeQF) on 1 October 2015, in accordance with the European Parliament recommendation on a European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning. 



Belgium (French Community) - Status report on the Pact for Excellence in Education or Teaching Excellence Pact 

The French Community adopted its Declaration on Community Policy (DPC) 2014-2019 in July 2014 in which several priorities are presented, including the adoption of a Teaching Excellence Pact.
The Teaching Excellence Pact is based on a participatory process running from 2015 until mid-2016. It aims at defining action priorities at a 10-year horizon to strengthen the quality in education at various levels:



Restructuring of the Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology 

As from October 2015, the Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology (MCAST), the main provider of post-secondary VET courses in Malta, has been reorganised to further develop and strengthen its organisational structure and better address the needs of students at different levels. 



Eurydice Newsletter edition 7

Welcome to the third 2015 edition of the Eurydice Newsletter. Our Newsletter provides you with updates on the most recent and forthcoming Eurydice publications, as well as news from the European education world. Since education systems vary significantly across Europe, Eurydice aims at understanding and explaining how those systems work, and strives to inform you about its main findings.


Focus on Purposes of education small.jpg

Focus on: The purposes of education

Date of publication: 4 December 2015

'Democracy has to be born anew every generation, and education is its midwife' – John Dewey, The Need of an Industrial Education in an Industrial Democracy (1916).

In the aftermath of the shocking attacks in Paris and Copenhagen in early 2015, the Ministries of Education of the European Union met to discuss the role that education could play in countering the terror brought to our cities. The result was the Paris declaration, a text focusing on the promotion of citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education. Ministries agreed that education's primary purpose 'is not only to develop knowledge, skills, competences and attitudes' but to nourish and transmit the fundamental values of our societies.


Compulsory Education 2015 16 Vignette.jpg

Compulsory education in Europe – 2015/16

Date of publication: 3 December 2015

Full version EN


A table representing the duration of compulsory education (full-time and part-time) in Europe.   


Flag Serbia News small.png

Serbia: New Law on Textbooks

The National Assembly of Serbia has adopted a new new law on Textbooks for ISCED levels 1, 2 and 3, after analysing problems that have been occurring in this field. The law, replacing the 2009 law on Textbooks and Other Teaching Aids, aims to regulate the textbook market, as well as to provide equal access to textbooks to minorities, pupils with special educational needs, and VET students.


Flag Czech Republic. news.gif

The Czech Republic established a new legal form of services for young children

A new legal form of services for young children, a child group (dětská skupina), was set up in late 2014. It is intended for children from one year of age until the commencement of compulsory schooling. It provides a regular care for a child outside his or her home.



The Structure of the European Education Systems 2015/16: Schematic Diagrams

Date of publication: 23 November 2015

This report provides an overview of the structure of education systems in Europe for 2015/16. In total, 42 education systems are represented. Information covers the 28 EU Member States as well as other countries participating in the Eurydice network.

For each country, diagrams show how the national education system is organised at five education levels: early childhood education and care, primary and secondary education programmes, post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, and the main programmes offered at tertiary level.


Flag of Slovakia.svg.png

Slovakia - New State Educational Programmes for Pre –primary and Primary Education

The new state educational programmes in Slovakia for pre-primary school facilities and primary schools came into force on 1 September 2015.

The ministry has decided that the new state educational programmes will be implemented in pre-primary schools on a voluntary basis for the school year 2015/2016. They will become compulsory for all pre-primary schools from 1 September 2016. For all primary schools, the new educational programmes became already compulsory on 1 September 2015.


CoverJAF vignette.jpg

Structural Indicators for Monitoring Education and Training Systems in Europe – 2015

Date of publication: 12 November 2015

This report contains more than 30 structural indicators that focus on country progress and key policy developments in five areas:  early childhood education and care, achievement in basic skills, higher education, graduate employability, and learning mobility. It provides background and complementary information to a number of structural indicators included in the Education and Training Monitor 2015.

Information covers all the EU Member States as well as most other countries participating in the Eurydice network. The reference year is 2014/15.


ECEC National sheets Vignette.jpg

Early Childhood Education and Care Systems in Europe: National Information Sheets – 2014/15

Date of publication: 12 November 2015

The national information sheets give a concise overview of the key features of early childhood education and care systems in Europe.

All the EU Member States as well as most other countries participating in the Eurydice network are covered. The reference year is 2014/15.

This report provides supporting and complementary evidence to the Eurydice report Structural Indicators for Monitoring Education and Training Systems 2015.


Flag United Kingdom.jpg

United Kingdom: A new Qualifications Framework in England and Northern Ireland

In September 2015, the qualifications regulator Ofqual announced the introduction of the Regulated Qualifications Framework (RQF) in England and Northern Ireland. This came into effect on 1 October 2015.


Flag News Latvia.GIF

Latvia: New regulation in foreign language examinations

In Latvia, national school final examinations in foreign languages can now be substituted by language tests administered by international assessment providers. Indeed, on 29 September 2015 the Government of Latvia approved a new regulation regarding the option for students to substitute their final language examination at general upper -secondary level with a test provided by certified international assessment providers.


Cover Fees and Support Vignette.jpg

National Student Fee and Support Systems in European Higher Education – 2015/16

Date of publication: 21 October 2015

This annual report provides a comparative overview of student fees and financial support in higher education in Europe for 2015/16. It also includes individual country sheets outlining the main elements of national systems.

The report covers all the EU Member States as well as some other countries participating in the Eurydice network.


Focus on Technology Small.jpg

Focus on: Will new technology ever improve education?

Date of publication: 14 October 2015

'Any teacher that can be replaced by a machine should be!' – Sir Arthur C. Clarke

If there is one thing we can be sure of for the future, it is that new technology will be ever present. Indeed the promise of new technology has been with us throughout our lives, and will stay with us – even if the latest specific new technologies are constantly changing. This reality presents opportunities and challenges for all sectors of education. For the last few years, MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) have been hailed as the next big game-changer in higher education.


Flag of Iceland.png

Iceland: New government institution

On 1 July 2015, the Parliament of Iceland passed a law on a new government institution, the Directorate of Education, effective as from 1 October 2015. The Directorate takes over the responsibility of tasks the Education Testing Institute and The National Centre for Educational Materials previously executed.


188EN .jpg

Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe – 2014/15

Date of publication: 5 October 2015

This annual report provides a comparative analysis on teachers' and school heads' statutory salaries and allowances in Europe for 2014/15. It also includes individual country sheets with detailed information on issues such as annual gross salaries, salary progression and available allowances.

The report covers all the EU Member States as well as other countries participating in the Eurydice network.


Cover Languages Web.jpg

Languages in Secondary Education: An Overview of National Tests in Europe – 2014/15

Date of publication: 25 September 2015

This Eurydice report provides a comparative overview of the national tests in Europe assessing the language competences of secondary school students. The report covers the 28 EU Member States as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Turkey, Montenegro and Serbia. The reference year is 2014/15.



Hungary: Kindergarten education from the age of 3 in Hungary

Date of publication: 17 September 2015

From September 2015, children are required to participate in kindergarten education from the age of 3 instead of 5 pursuant to the Act on Public Education. This provision is specifically designed to integrate disadvantaged children at an age when it is most effective and in this way to prevent early school leaving. The responsible authority is the Ministry of Human Capacities. The increased need for kindergarten education provision is supported by a HUF kindergarten infrastructure development programme aiming at increasing the number of places.


Focus on teacher.jpg

Focus on: What makes a good teacher?

Date of publication:  7 September 2015

'Most great learning happens in groups. Collaboration is the stuff of growth' – Sir Ken Robinson Ph.D.

Teachers are considered, rightly, the most important element within schools influencing student learning. In other words: it takes a good teacher to make a good learner. But what makes a good teacher? Undoubtedly vocational abilities, personal characteristics, and individual attitudes are part of the picture. However, this is also true for many other professions.



The Organisation of school time in Europe. Primary and general secondary education: 2015/16 school year

Date of publication: 1 September 2015

The School Calendar contains national data on the length of the school year, the start and the end dates of each school year, and the timing and length of school holidays. It covers both primary and secondary education. The information is available for 36 countries.



The Organisation of the Academic Year in Europe 2015/16

Date of publication: 1 September 2015

The Academic Calendar contains national data on how the academic year is structured (beginning of the year, term times, holidays and examination periods). Differences between university and non-university study programmes are also highlighted. The information is available for 37 countries.


Flag Poland.GIF

Poland: Educational policy for the school year 2015/16 – Key areas

Date of publication: 7 August 2015

The Minister of National Education in Poland has declared the school year 2015/16 as the Year of the Open School in the country. Open school is understood as open to culture, art, sport and local community and knows how to benefit from its environment.

The following key areas for educational policy have been also defined by the Minister for the coming school year:

  1. Improving the safety of children and young people with a particular emphasis on those with special educational needs in care centres, socio-therapy centres, special school and care centres, and compensation and care centres for young people.
  2. Improving the quality of teaching in upper secondary schools through the engagement of social partners’ representatives in adjusting vocational education to the labour market needs.  
  3. Developing reading competences and promoting reading among children and young people.
  4. Strengthening mathematics and science in general education.


The Teaching Profession in Europe: Practices, Perceptions, and Policies

Date of publication: 25 June 2015

This Eurydice report analyses the relation between the policies that regulate the teaching profession in Europe for lower secondary education teachers, and the attitudes, practices, and perceptions of teachers. The analysis covers aspects such as initial teacher education, continuing professional development, transnational mobility, as well as teacher demographics, working conditions, and the attractiveness of the profession. It combines qualitative and quantitative data from Eurydice, Eurostat/UOE, and TALIS 2013.



Netherlands: Benelux countries agree on mutual recognition of higher education

Date of publication: 18 June 2015

The Dutch minister of Education, Culture and Science, Jet Bussemaker, and her Benelux counterparts have approved a decision whereby Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees awarded by higher education institutions in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg will be automatically recognised throughout the Benelux. This was agreed in Brussels on 18 May 2015 by Hilde Crevits (Flemish Government), Jean-Claude Marcourt (Government of the Federation Wallonia-Brussels), Harald Mollers (Government of the German-Speaking Community of Belgium), Jet Bussemaker (Government of the Netherlands) and Marc Hansen (Government of Luxembourg).



Eurydice Newsletter edition 6

Date of publication: 16 June 2015

Welcome to the second 2015 edition of the Eurydice Newsletter. The Eurydice Newsletter provides you with updates on the most recent and future Eurydice publications, as well as news from the European education world. Since education systems vary significantly across Europe, Eurydice aims at understanding and explaining how those systems work, and strives to inform you about its main findings.


Focus on website petit.jpg

Focus on: Eurydice has launched its new improved, integrated and interactive website!

Date of publication: 16 June 2015

"Clarity affords focus" – Thomas Leonard

The mission of the Eurydice network is to provide European-level analyses and information to those responsible for education systems and policies in Europe, and assist in the decision and policy making. Eurydice delivers detailed descriptions and overviews of national education systems, comparative thematic reports devoted to specific topics of community interest, and factual reports related to education. The network consists of 41 national units based in 37 countries with a coordinating unit located at the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) in Brussels, Belgium.



Eurydice Brief: Early Leaving from Education and Training

Date of publication: 11 June 2015

This Eurydice Brief on Early Leaving from Education and Training (ELET) shows that collectively, Member States are getting closer to the EU headline target: by 2020, the share of early leavers from education and training (aged 18-24) should be less than 10 %. Nevertheless, ELET remains still a serious challenge in many EU countries.




The European Higher Education Area in 2015: Bologna Process Implementation Report

Date of publication: 12 May 2015

This report provides a snapshot of the state of implementation of the Bologna Process from various perspectives using data collected in the first half of 2014. It provides both qualitative information and statistical data, and covers all main aspects of higher education reforms aiming at a well-functioning European Higher Education Area.



Italy: ‘The good school’: Reform of the national education and training system

Date of publication: 11 May 2015

On 12 March 2015, the Council of Ministers approved the ‘Draft law on the reform of the national system of education and training and powers given to the Government for the reorganisation of the existing provision’, simply called Draft law ‘The good school’ (‘La buona scuola’).



Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-time Compulsory Education in Europe 2014/15

Date of publication: 8 May 2015

This publication provides information on instruction time in various forms: national data sheets, comparative indicators and country specific notes. The data is presented in diagrams, detailing instruction time by country and instruction time by subject. An accompanying comparative analysis covers various instruction time indicators.


Flag United Kingdom.jpg

United Kingdom, Scotland: Education Bill introduced to Parliament

Date of publication: 5 May 2015

Efforts to boost educational outcomes, particularly among Scotland’s most disadvantaged children, are to be underpinned in law. The Education (Scotland) Bill was introduced to the Scottish Parliament by the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning on 23 March 2015. It is intended to support the Government’s existing work to raise educational standards and to raise attainment for all Scottish children.



Focus on - Are adults interested in learning?

Date of publication: 27 April 2015

In the 1980s, the film Educating Rita struck a chord with many who saw adult education as a major cultural divide. Focusing on a young, working class hairdresser's aspiration to "improve herself" through education, the film revealed in a realistic and often humorous way that academic success for people from such backgrounds doesn't come easily.



Cyprus: Public Dialogue on Education

On 7.11.2014, the Minister of Education and Culture presented to the teachers’ organisations proposals on three major educational issues, namely the teachers’ appointment system, the educational evaluation system and the teachers’ in-service education and training system, initiating in this way a public dialogue with all parties involved in the education sector.



Eurydice Brief - Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Access, Retention and Employability

Date of publication: 27 March 2015

The Brief draws on key findings from the report, Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe: Access, retention and employability, and covers higher education systems in 34 European countries.



Focus on - Education: the end of the alpha-male?

Date of publication: 27 February 2015

What is the most striking transformation that has taken place in European education in the last half century? The information and communications revolution and the changes brought to teaching and learning methods are strong contenders, while internationalisation and student mobility in education have also expanded education's horizons.



Adult Education and Training in Europe: Widening Access to Learning Opportunities

Date of publication: 10 February 2015

Through a comprehensive overview of policies and data related to the renewed European agenda for adult learning, this Eurydice report aims to support the exchange of policy and practice between countries.



Eurydice Newsletter edition 5

Date of publication: 30 January 2015

Welcome to the first 2015 edition of the Eurydice Newsletter. The Eurydice Newsletter is your update on recent and forthcoming Eurydice publications and news from the world of European education. Education systems vary enormously across Europe. Eurydice's task is to understand and explain how they work and to share that information with you.