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Luxembourg:Education in the Europe 2020 Strategy

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<parsererror>XML Parsing Error: not well-formed Location: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php?title=Luxembourg:Education_in_the_Europe_2020_Strategy&action=edit Line Number 1, Column 34921:<sourcetext><body xmlns:x="http://excel"><div class="tabsContainer" id="rightColumn"><div id="hierarchyBox"><p><img class="FCK__MWTemplate" src="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/extensions/WYSIWYG/ckeditor/images/spacer.gif?t=B49E5BQ" data-cke-realelement="%3Cspan%20class%3D%22fck_mw_template%22%3E%7B%7BLuxembourg%3AIndex%7D%7D%3C%2Fspan%3E" data-cke-real-node-type="1" alt="Unknown Object" title="Unknown Object" data-cke-real-element-type="span" align=""/></p></div><div id="crossCountry"><p><img class="FCK__MWTemplate" src="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/extensions/WYSIWYG/ckeditor/images/spacer.gif?t=B49E5BQ" data-cke-realelement="%3Cspan%20class%3D%22fck_mw_template%22%3E%7B%7Btemplate%3Acc_europe_2020%7D%7D%3C%2Fspan%3E" data-cke-real-node-type="1" alt="Unknown Object" title="Unknown Object" data-cke-real-element-type="span" align=""/></p></div></div><p>Europe 2020 is a 10-year strategy for a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategy identifies a number of key areas which concern the field of education and training: a common headline target with twin targets on early school leaving and higher education participation; country specific recommendations; the Annual Growth Survey under the European semester of economic governance; the question of investment in education; and the agenda for New skills and jobs.</p><p>Luxembourg’s "<a href="http://www.odc.public.lu/publications/pnr/2013_NRP_Luxembourg_2020_april_2013.pdf">National Reform Programm</a>e” specifies the national targets and principal measures relating to Europe 2020. However, the initiatives presented in the programme do not stand alone: They are part of<a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Specific_Ongoing_Reforms_and_Policy_Developments_at_National_Level">large national reform projects</a> in secondary and vocational education. Just as the different targets proposed, the initiatives are closely interrelated.</p><p> </p><h1>The Europe 2020 Headline Targets for Education and Training<br/></h1><p>The strategy identifies a Europe 2020 headline target with two underlying targets for education and training to be reached by the EU by 2020:</p><ul><li>To reduce the share of early school leavers to less than 10%;</li><li>To increase the share of the population aged 30–34 having completed tertiary or equivalent education to at least 40%.</li><li>EU member states have translated these two EU wide-targets into specific national targets.</li></ul><p></p><h2>Early school leaving<br/></h2><p>Luxembourg has joined the European objective to reduce the share of early school leavers to less than 10%. This target might be adjusted in 2015, if the country will have established its share below 10% by then. Considering the strong annual variations of the figures delivered by the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) and the fact that this survey concerns Luxembourg's entire resident population including a great number of persons who have not been attending school in Luxembourg, Luxembourg has chosen to use its own national indicator.</p><h3>Monitoring of early school leaving </h3><p>In Luxembourg, early school leaving is closely monitored by a continuing survey conducted by the Local Youth Action (ALJ - Action Locale pour Jeunes) in cooperation with the Luxembourg's Ministry of Education, Children and Youth (MENJE – ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l'Enfance et de la Jeunesse). On the basis of data provided by the ministry (fichier élèves), staff members of the Local Youth Action contact all early school leavers individually in order to offer help and guidance. At this occasion, the former pupils are interviewed on their background and on the factors leading to the drop-out.<br/>Thus, Luxembourg does not only obtain reliable figures; it is also able to identify the circumstances of early school leaving. The latest report on early school leaving (<a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/publications/secondaire/statistiques-analyses/decrochage-scolaire/index.html">MENFP 2013</a>) shows that the share has been constantly dropping since the school year 2003/2004 - the launching year of the ALJ's monitoring activities. In the last years, a share of 9% has been established.</p><p></p><table summary="Source: MENFP 2012" style="text-align: center; width: 450px" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"><tbody><tr><th scope="col">School year</th><th scope="col">Permanent share of school leavers</th></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2003/2004</td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">17,2%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2005/2006</td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">14,9%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2006/2007</td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">9,4%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2007/2008</td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">11,2%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2008/2009</td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">9,0%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2009/2010</td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">9,0%</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">2010/2011<br/></td><td style="text-align: center; vertical-align: middle">9,0%<br/></td></tr></tbody></table><p>Source: MENFP 2013, <i><a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/publications/secondaire/statistiques-analyses/decrochage-scolaire/index.html">Le décrochage scolaire au Luxembourg</a>,</i> p. 7</p><p><br/>The main reasons for early school leaving indicated by the former pupils are</p><ul><li>actual or anticipated failure at school</li><li>dissatisfaction with the programme chosen or with the educational guidance provided</li><li>difficulties in obtaining an apprenticeship contract or termination of the contract</li><li>personal reasons</li><li>lack of motivation and interest for the chosen programme.</li></ul><h3>Measures for reducing early school leaving </h3><p>While the number of dropouts is decreasing, the prevention of early school leaving remains a priority for Luxembourg’s educational policy: the ministry aims at offering support at pupils in difficulties as soon as first problems occur.</p><p>The NRP identifies the following measures for reducing early school leaving:</p><ul><li><b>The reform of secondary education</b>: In April 2013, the Ministry of Education has introduced a new goverment bill (projet de loi) regarding a reform of secondary schools. Based on a three-year consultation process, the main orientations of this reform should contribute to the promotion of educational success. Among other elements, the reform foresees a better supervision of pupils, more pertinent guidance activities in lower secondary education, a broad general knowledge and gradual specialisation in upper secondary education, a clearer distribution of responsibilities and more precise procedures for the organisation of secondary schools. Luxembourg’s new government, which is in place since December 2013, foresees to revise this government bill.</li><li><b>The transition from elementary towards secondary school</b>: Since the school year 2012/13, a new and more transparent procedure for the transition from elementary towards secondary school has been implemented, reinforcing the parents' involvement in the preparation of guidance decisions (<i>décisions d'orientation</i>).  In addition, the lower classes of secondary education (pivotal classes or <i>classes charnières</i>) are supposed to smoothen the transition to upper secondary education.</li><li><b>The reform of vocational training</b>: The NRP states: "The implementation of the professional training reform, which targets an objective of getting qualifications to correspond to job market demand, is moving forward. The primary characteristics leading to achievement of the reform are: training based on learning achievements, a joint determination of skills to be attained by academic and professional arena players, promotion of the work-study concept in the form of long-term internships or apprenticeships in all areas of professional training." (NRP 2013, p. 44).</li><li><b>The Counselling Centre </b>(MO - <i>Maison de l'orientation</i>): In 2012, the different public departments providing vocational and academic guidance have moved into one common building. This Counselling Centre is open to the general public and regroups offices of 6 services, which belong to different ministries. The services work in close cooperation in realising presentations in schools, assisting young people during their transition from school to work and supporting early school leavers. In order to improve the services provided, the centre's steering committee intends to widen its national network, to establish cooperations with other European guidance centres and to set up a plan for continuing training for the staff involved in guidance.</li><li><b>The School for Second Chances</b> (E2C - <i>École de la deuxième chance</i>): Created in 2009, the School for Second Chances (E2C) has in 2012 expanded its capacities and broadened its educational offer.</li></ul><p></p><h2>Higher education</h2><p>According to the European Labour Force Survey, Luxembourg already surpasses the European target of attaining a 40% share of 30 to 34 year olds having completed higher education: for 2012, <a href="http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/europe_2020_indicators/headline_indicators">Eurostat</a> reported a share of 49,6%. </p><p>Luxembourg’s high score is, however, due to the high proportion of foreign graduates working in Luxembourg (see <a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Population:_Demographic_Situation,_Languages_and_Religions">Demographic situation</a>) and provides little information on the national school system's capacity to prepare pupils for higher education. Taking these particularities into account<a href="http://www.odc.public.lu/publications/pnr/2012_NRP_Luxembourg_2020_april_2012.pdf">[1</a>], Luxembourg aims at increasing its share to 66%.</p><h3>Measures for increasing participation in higher education</h3><p>The NRP presents the following measures for increasing participation in higher education:</p><ul><li><b>financial aid for higher education</b>: Since 2010, Luxembourg's system for financial aid for higher education, composed by a grant and a loan, allows each student, regardless of his or her age and socio-economic background, to pursue higher studies in Luxembourg or abroad (<a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0207/a207.pdf#page=2"><i>Règlement grand-ducal du 12 novembre 2010</i>).</a></li><li><b>vocational short-cycle programmes preparing Advanced Technician Diplomas </b> (BTS - <i>Brevet de technicien supérieur</i>): Luxembourg continues to broaden its offer of short-cycle programmes leading to an Advanced Technicians Diploma (voir article <a href="Luxembourg%3AShort-Cycle%20Higher%20Education">7.2.2 - Short-Cycle Higher Education</a>). In 2012/13, the number of programmes provided has increased to 17 compared to 14 programmes in 2011/12.</li><li><b>investments in the University of Luxembourg:</b> The State continues to invest in the functioning and the infrastructure of the University of Luxembourg. The budget foreseen, as well as the number of students enrolled, continues to rise.</li></ul><p></p><h2>Reinforcing human capital through lifelong learning<br/></h2><p>Further to the two common objectives discussed above, Luxembourg has committed itself to a third objective regarding education and training: it aims at increasing the level of qualification of its adult population and of young people who have not attained a recognised qualification.</p><p>In this context, the NRP lists the following measures:</p><ul><li>reinforcing adult secondary education as well as the School for Second Chances (E2C);</li><li>promoting language courses for adults;</li><li>promoting the validation of non-formal and informal learning (VAE - validation des acquis et de l'expérience);</li><li>developing adult education and training;</li><li>increasing qualification measures for job seekers;</li><li>promoting basic skills for adult learners;</li><li>building a new national library in order to be able to welcome and guide a wider public;</li><li>developing a national network of libraries (bibnet.lu);</li><li>developing bridging programmes between different educational systems;</li><li>implementing the National Qualifications Framework (NQF);</li><li>paying particular attention to the participation of vulnerable groups.</li></ul><p>Furthermore, the national strategy for lifelong learning sets out six principles and eight measures responding to challenges identified at national level (see for <a href="Luxembourg%3ALifelong%20Learning%20Strategy">article 2.2 - Lifelong Learning Strategy</a>).</p><p></p><h1>Country Specific Recommendations<br/></h1><p>In the framework of the European Semester, the Council issues each year country-specific guidance to Member States.</p><p>In 2012, five recommendations have been adopted for Luxembourg. One of them concerns the field of education of training:</p><p>"<i>Continue efforts to reduce youth unemployment by reinforcing stakeholders’ involvement, and by strengthening training and education measures, in particular for those with low education levels, with the aim of better matching young people’s skills and qualifications to labour demand</i>". (<a href="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2012:219:0058:0060:EN:PDF">Council Recommendation of 10 July 2012 on the National Reform Programme 2012</a><i>)</i></p><p>In order to respond to this recommendation, the NRP 2013 cites the following measures:</p><p></p><ul><li><b>adopting a National Action Plan for Youth Employment</b> (<i>Plan d'action en faveur de l'emploi des jeunes</i>), which foresees a "Guarantee for young people" (<i>Garantie pour les jeunes</i>) as well as adapting employment measures for young people, improving guidance, developing apprenticeships and projects for young people without qualification and furthest away from the labour market;</li><li><b>adapting and extending measures</b> allowing young people to benefit from practical training and acquire work experience in order to find regular employment, by a law voted on 26 February 2013;</li><li><b>implementing a pilot project (2012) </b>concerning the training of young people with a very low academic attainment, implying a two-month-training period in a training centre and leading to a guidance towards the most appropriate training pathways;</li><li><b>intensifying monitoring of young job seekers</b> by the Agency for the Development of Employment (ADEM – <i>Agence pour le développement de l’emploi</i>) and implementing projects which other institutions ;</li><li><b>assembling institutions providing guidance and counselling in a Counselling Centre</b> (MO - <i>Maison de l'orientation</i>) and thus reinforcing their cooperation and their accessibility. (The MO has been officially inaugurated on 26 September 2012);</li><li><b>broadening the offer of the School for Second Chances</b> (E2C - <i>École de la deuxième chance</i>), which has also moved to a new building which allows to welcome up to 150 pupils.</li></ul><p></p><p>In response to the NRP, the following recommendation concerning education and training has been issued in July 2013:</p><p>“<i>Step up efforts to reduce youth unemployment by improving the design and monitoring of active labour market policies. Strengthen general and vocational education to better match young people’s skills with labour demand, in particular for people with migrant background. Reinforce efforts to increase the participation rate of older workers, including by improving their employability through lifelong learning</i>.” (C<a href="http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/nd/csr2013_luxembourg_en.pdf">ouncil Recommendation on Luxembourg’s 2013 national reform programme and delivering a Council opinion on Luxembourg’s stability programme for 2012-2016</a>).</p><p>The first point (“strengthen general and vocational education”) is addressed by</p><ul><li> the recent reform of vocational education and training;</li><li>the future reform of secondary education;</li><li>the future reform of secondary education;</li><li>the support measures proposed to<a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Promoting_Equity,_Social_Cohesion_and_Active_Citizenship#Integrating_foreign_pupils">pupils</a> and <a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Promoting_Equity,_Social_Cohesion_and_Active_Citizenship#Measures_for_adult_migrants">adults with migrant background</a> (article <a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Promoting_Equity,_Social_Cohesion_and_Active_Citizenship">14.2.3</a>)</li><li>the <a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Specific_Ongoing_Reforms_and_Policy_Developments_at_National_Level#Main_aspects">possibilities for educational support and differentiation</a> introduced by the 2009 reform of elementary education.</li></ul><p>Concerning the second point, the participation of older workers in lifelong learning is currently encouraged by</p><ul><li>the reform of the <b>co-funding of continuous vocational training in companies</b> (<i>cofinancement de la formation en entreprise</i>). The new law (<a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2012/0067/"><i>Loi du 28 mars 2012</i></a>) provides for a higher financial participation of the State for the salary costs of low qualified and elder workers: while the co-funding usually amounts to up to 20% of the costs invested, salary costs for elder workers and those who do not hold any formal qualification are reimbursed at 35%.</li><li>the different types of training leaves, which are co-financed by the State (congé de formation, congé linguistique – see <a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Adult_Education_and_Training_Funding">article 3.3</a>).</li></ul><p><span id="1346924462058S" style="display: none"> </span></p><p><span id="1346924288407S" style="display: none"> </span></p><h1>Investment<br/></h1><p>While Luxembourg is committed to stabilising public finance and to increasing financial stability, the country prioritises expenditure related to the promotion of social life and the development of its economy. Furthermore, the Government has ensured alignment between the <a href="http://www.mf.public.lu/publications/programme/13th_update_stability_growth_programme.pdf">Stability Programme</a> and the National Reform Programme by synchronizing their draw up and by discussing them jointly.</p><p>While the Government focuses on not to increase public expenditure as a whole, the budget for education has been slightly raised in the past years (MENFP, 2013. <a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/publications/systeme-educatif/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/index.html"><i>Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale. Statistiques et indicateurs 2010-2011</i></a>, p.92-96). . Moreover, there have been recent engagement to measures in the field of education. To give but some examples:</p><ul><li>A budget of € 16 million has been dedicated to measures allowing <b>young job seekers</b> to acquire practical experiences (NRP 2012 – <a href="http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/nd/annex12012_luxembourg_en.pdf">Annexe 1</a>).</li></ul><ul><li>On 28 March 2012, the Parliament has voted a law (<a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2012/0067/a067.pdf#page=2">Loi du 28 mars 2012</a>) <b>raising the co-funding of continuous vocational training</b> in companies (<i>cofinancement de la formation en entreprise</i> - see <a href="Luxembourg%3AAdult%20Education%20and%20Training%20Funding">article 3.3 - Adult education and training funding</a>).</li><li>As a consequence of the above-mentioned decree on financial aides for higher education, the <b>expenses for study grants and study loans</b> have increased dramatically. In 2009/2010, the study grants for a total amount of € 14.888.925 were awarded. In 2011/12, the amount spent on grants had increased more than six fold to € 90.818.395.</li><li>As a consequence of the 2009 reform of elementary education, and contrary to the fears of some school partners, the expenses for elementary education rose from 93.566€ in 2007/2008 to 104.564€ in 2011/2012 (Koenig, S., 2013. <a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/grands-dossiers/enseignement-fondamental/premier-bilan-reforme-fondamentale/bilan_reforme_ef_rapport_siggy_koenig.pdf"><i>La réforme de l’école fondamentale - Rapport sur le premier bilan</i></a>).</li><li>The same holds true for the average annual expenditure per pupil in elementary education which has risen to 20.821€ per pupil in 2012 (MENFP 2012, <a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/publications/systeme-educatif/statistiques-analyses/enseignement-chiffres/index.html"><i>Key figures of Luxembourgish education</i></a>).</li></ul><p></p><h1>The Annual Growth Survey</h1><p>The Annual Growth Survey (AGS) 2013 launches the European semester of economic governance. It is the basis for building the necessary common understanding about the priorities for action at national and EU level for the next 12 months, which should then feed into national economic and budgetary decisions.</p><p>Five reform areas identified in the 2013 AGS relate to the field of education and training:</p><ul><li>Raise the performance of education and training systems and overall skill levels, link the worlds of work and education more closely together;</li><li>Reduce early school-leaving and facilitate the transition from school to work by developing quality traineeships, apprenticeships and dual learning models -classroom-based education combined with hands-on experience in the work place. Efforts to develop entrepreneurial skills are needed to support new business creation and improve employability levels of the young;</li><li>Develop and implement "youth guarantee" schemes whereby every young person under the age of 25 receives an offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within four months of leaving formal education or becoming unemployed. Such schemes can be co-financed by the European Social Fund;</li><li>Improve access to lifelong-learning systems throughout working life, including for older workers, by strengthening partnerships of public and private institutions involved in the provision, application and updating of specific skills;</li><li>Improve the connection between education and lifelong-learning systems and labour market needs. Short-cycle tertiary qualifications of two years, focused on areas where a skills shortage has been identified, as well as targeted mobility schemes, can prove particularly effective in current circumstances.</li></ul><p>All of these areas are either<b>addressed by recent and on-going reforms</b> or they are made a priority by<b>Luxembourg’s lifelong learning strategy</b>. Further information is provided in the other paragraphs of this article as well as the articles <a href="Luxembourg%3ASpecific%20Ongoing%20Reforms%20and%20Policy%20Developments%20at%20National%20Level">14.3</a> and <a href="Luxembourg%3ALifelong%20Learning%20Strategy">2.2</a>.</p><p></p><p><i><span id="1346924466230S" style="display: none"><span id="1346924466858S" style="display: none"> </span> </span></i></p><h1>New Skills and Jobs</h1><p>The <a href="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0682:FIN:EN:PDF">agenda for New skills and Jobs</a> is a European flagship in support of EU's employment target for 2020: 75% of the working-age population (20-64 years) in work. It aims at boosting inclusive growth by addressing four key priorities:</p><ul><li>First, better functioning labour markets</li><li>Second, a more skilled workforce</li><li>Third, better job quality and working conditions</li><li>Fourth, stronger policies to promote job creation and demand for labour (EC 2010)</li></ul><p>The Agenda suggests 13 key actions, focussing inter alia on the <b>matching of skills and labour market needs</b> (better methods to anticipate and assess the demand for skills and to analyse mismatches), on <b>developing lifelong learning strategies</b> improving the access to qualification and further learning, on a <b>social dialogue</b> on lifelong learning and on systems for the recognition of qualification.</p><p>Luxembourg has introduced a number of initiatives aimed at fostering employment and creating new jobs. A great number of them are explained in chapter 5.1 of Luxembourg’s <a href="http://www.odc.public.lu/publications/pnr/2013_NRP_Luxembourg_2020_april_2013.pdf">National Reform Programme</a>.</p><p>Policy developments in this area include:</p><ul><li><b>Luxembourg's training observatory</b> (<a href="http://www.infpc.lu/Observatoire/Article/accueil-observatoire/fr"><i>observatoire de la formation</i></a>): The training observatory has been launched in 2009 by the National Institute for the Development of Continuing Vocational Training (INFPC – <i>Institut national de la formation professionnelle continue</i>). The field of studies will be enlarged in the coming years in order to provide more comprehensive information on the skills needs of Luxembourg’s economy and the skills promoted by Luxembourg’s educational system. The observatory is starting a longitudinal study analysing transitions from education to the labour market as well as professional trajectories. A long term objective is to provide prospective studies on the evolution of professions. The observatory's <a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2012/0190/a190.pdf#page=2">legal base</a> has been voted on 21<sup>st</sup> July 2012.</li><li><b>launching a job market observatory</b> (<i>observatoire de l’emploi</i>) : In the frame of an on-going <a href="http://www.fse.public.lu/projets/Operations20072013/2011-2013/ADEM_Retel.html">ESF project</a>, Luxembourg has launched a Research Network on Job Market and Employment (RETEL - <i>Réseau d'étude sur le marché de travail et de l'emploi</i>). By the means of this network, also called Job Market Observatory, different institutions work together for setting up studies, surveys and analysis providing a better understanding of Luxembourg's and the Greater Region's job market. The RETEL's <a href="http://www.mte.public.lu/actualites/retel/2011/11/evaluation-mesure/index.html">launching conference took</a> place in November 2011. </li><li><b>enlarging access to Lifelong Learning</b>: Access to Lifelong Learning is constantly being enlarged in order to allow citizens to make up qualifications or to adapt their skills to labour market needs. Luxembourg has already implemented initiatives improving access to skills and qualifications such as the Validation of non-formal and informal learning and different types of training leaves (<i>congé de formation, congé linguistique - </i>see <a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Luxembourg:Adult_Education_and_Training_Funding">article 3.3</a>). A lifelong learning strategy has been adopted in order to compile measures addressing remaining obstacles.</li><li><b>further promoting social dialogue</b>: Social dialogue and tripartite meetings traditionally play an important role in Luxembourg’s politics. There are several bodies and committees concerned with market challenges and possible reactions, treating these questions on different levels. As a consequence of the 2008 reform of vocational education and training, the anticipation of future skills needs provides the basis of vocational education programmes. The stakeholders involved in this process are employer’s representatives, employees’ representatives and schools.</li><li><b>adapting measures for young job seekers,</b> such as detailed above.</li><li><b>preparing a civil service reform</b>: Luxembourg is currently preparing a civil service reform (<a href="http://www.fonction-publique.public.lu/fr/actualites/reformes/2012/07/lois-reglement/index.html"><i>Réforme de la fonction publique</i></a>). The Government and the General Federation of Public Service (CGFP – <i>Confédération générale de la Fonction publique</i>) have established an agreement on measures aimed at managing the age pyramid and at fostering skills development for civil servants.</li></ul><p></p><h1>Bibliography</h1><p>Council of the European Union, 2012.<a href="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2012:219:0058:0060:EN:PDF"><i>Council Recommendation of 10 July 2012 on the National Reform Programme 2012 of Luxembourg and delivering a Council opinion on the Stability Programme of Luxembourg, 2012-15</i></a>. Official Journal of the European Union 2012/C 219. pp. 58-60.</p><p>Council of the European Union, 2013. <a href="http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/nd/csr2013_luxembourg_en.pdf"><i>Council Recommendation on Luxembourg’s 2013 national reform programme and delivering a Council opinion on Luxembourg’s stability programme for 2012-2016</i></a>.</p><p>Ministère de l'Éducation nationale et de la Formation professionnelle, 2013. <a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/publications/secondaire/statistiques-analyses/decrochage-scolaire/index.html"><i>Le décrochage scolaire au Luxembourg. Parcours et caractéristiques des jeunes en rupture scolaire. Causes du décrochage année scolaire 2010/2011</i></a>. L’enseignement luxembourgeois en chiffres. Luxembourg: MENFP.</p><p>Ministère de l'Éducation nationale et de la Formation professionnelle, 2013. <a href="http://www.men.public.lu/fr/publications/systeme-educatif/statistiques-analyses/enseignement-chiffres/index.html"><i>Key figures of Luxembourgish education</i></a>. Luxembourg: MENFP</p><p>Le gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 2013. L<a href="http://www.odc.public.lu/publications/pnr/2013_PNR_Luxembourg_2020_avril_2013.pdf"><i>uxembourg 2020. Plan national pour une croissance intelligente, durable et inclusive</i></a>. Programme national de réforme du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg dans le cadre du semestre européen 2013.</p><p>Ministère des Finances, 2013. <a href="http://www.mf.public.lu/publications/programme/14e_progr_stabilite_croissance.pdf"><i>14e actualisation du programme de stabilité et de croissance du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg pour la période 2013-2016</i></a></p><h1>Legislation<br/></h1><p><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0189/a189.pdf#page=29">Recueil de législation</a>. Réforme de la formation professionnelle</p><ul><li>modifiant la loi modifiée du 4 septembre 1990 portant réforme de l’enseignement secondaire technique et de la formation professionnelle continue;</li></ul><p><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2012/0067/a067.pdf#page=2">Loi du 28 mars 2012 modifiant</a><br/>1. la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle et<br/>2. le Code du Travail.</p><p><br/><a href="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/extensions/FCKeditor/fckeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=wpTextbox1&Toolbar=Wiki">Loi du 19 juin 2009 portant organisation de l’enseignement supérieur</a></p><p><br/><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2009/0105/a105.pdf#page=2">Loi du 12 mai 2009</a> portant création d’une École de la 2e Chance</p><ul><li>fixant les modalités du cycle d’études d’enseignement supérieur aboutissant à la délivrance du brevet de technicien supérieur;</li><li>fixant les modalités d’implantation de formations d’enseignement supérieur ou de création de filiales ou d’établissements privés ou publics sur le territoire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg;</li><li>abrogeant la loi du 14 août 1976 déterminant les conditions de création d’établissements privés d’enseignement supérieur<br/>Loi du 17 février 2009 portant</li></ul><p><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2009/0033/a033.pdf#page=2">Loi du 17 février 2009 portant</a></p><p>1. introduction d’un congé linguistique;<br/>2. modification du Code du Travail;<br/>3. modification de la loi du 19 août 2008 relative aux aides à la formation-recherche</p><p><br/><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0189/a189.pdf#page=2">Loi du 19 décembre 2008</a> portant réforme de la formation professionnelle</p><p><br/><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2007/0241/a241.pdf#page=2">Loi du 24 octobre 2007</a> portant création d’un congé individuel de formation et modification<br/>1. du Code du travail;<br/>2. de la loi modifiée du 4 octobre 1973 concernant l’institution d’un congé-éducation;<br/>3. de la loi modifiée du 16 avril 1979 fixant le statut général des fonctionnaires de l’Etat;<br/>4. de la loi modifiée du 24 décembre 1985 fixant le statut général des fonctionnaires communaux<br/><br/><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0006/a006.pdf#page=2">Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010</a> portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle.<br/><a href="http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0207/a207.pdf#page=2">Règlement grand-ducal du 12 novembre 2010</a> modifiant le règlement grand-ducal du 5 octobre 2000 concernant l’aide financière de l’Etat pour études supérieures</p><p><u><img class="FCK__MWTemplate" src="https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/extensions/WYSIWYG/ckeditor/images/spacer.gif?t=B49E5BQ" data-cke-realelement="%3Cspan%20class%3D%22fck_mw_template%22%3E%7B%7Bhierarchy%3Afooter%7D%7D%3C%2Fspan%3E" data-cke-real-node-type="1" alt="Unknown Object" title="Unknown Object" data-cke-real-element-type="span" align=""/></u></p><p></p><p></p><p><span id="1346921690852E" style="display: none"> </span><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/><a _cke_saved_href="Category:Early_school_leavers" href="Category:Early_school_leavers">Category:Early_school_leavers</a></p><p><span class="fck_mw_category" sort="<u>National_Policies</u>">National Policies</span><br/><span class="fck_mw_category" sort="<u>Europe_2020</u>">Europe 2020</span><br/><span class="fck_mw_category" sort="<u>Higher_Education</u>">Higher Education</span></p></body> 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