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Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Liechtenstein

Contents

Liechtenstein:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Liechtenstein:Historical Development

Liechtenstein:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Liechtenstein:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Liechtenstein:Political and Economic Situation

Liechtenstein:Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Liechtenstein:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Liechtenstein:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Private Education

Liechtenstein:National Qualifications Framework

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Liechtenstein:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Funding in Education

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Higher Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training Funding

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Liechtenstein:First Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Bachelor

Liechtenstein:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Second Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Liechtenstein:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Distribution of Responsibilities

Liechtenstein:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Liechtenstein:Main Providers

Liechtenstein:Main Types of Provision

Liechtenstein:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Liechtenstein:Teachers and Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Management and Other Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Educational Support and Guidance

Liechtenstein:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Liechtenstein:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Liechtenstein:Mobility and Internationalisation

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Liechtenstein:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in School Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Liechtenstein:European Perspective

Liechtenstein:Legislation

Liechtenstein:Institutions

Liechtenstein:Bibliography

Liechtenstein:Glossary

Early Childhood Education and Care
(Programmes for Children Below four Years of Age)

Responsible Bodies

Care facilities and services for children below the age of four belong to the fields of social and family policy and are under the responsibility of the Office of Social Services.

Approaches and Methods for Quality Assurance

The Ordinance on the non home-based Care Services for Children and Young People regulates the procedures for approval of foster care of children in private settings, the procedures for approval and the requirements regarding the management of childcare facilities as well as their supervision.

The Office of Social Services is obliged to visit the settings of children and young people in care regarding quality assurance as often as possible, and at least once a year; the same applies comprehensively to all child care facilities.

Kindergarten, Primary and Secondary Education (Lower / Upper Secondary)

Planning and implementation of internal evaluation are part of the individual school's responsibilities. External evaluation is planned and implemented under the supervision of the Office of Education. Evaluation topics and methods are determined by the relevant inspectorate (usually after consulting the school involved). The relevant basis is given by the planning documentation (guiding prniciples, annual programmes etc.) and the reports on the internal evaluation.

Responsible Bodies

Supervision of the complete education system is the responsibility of the state. The aspects of quality assurance are implemented by the education institutions and by the state authorities.

Approaches and Methods

Methods and instruments of quality assurance are defined in the Guidelines for Quality Assurance and Development in the Liechtenstein Education System.

The following lists and illustrates the main methods and instruments.

External Evaluation

External evaluation is planned and implemented by the Office of Education (Guidelines for Quality Assurance and Development in the Liechtenstein Education System, p. 76).

State, Office of Education:

Evaluation of the schools is part of an overall strategy for quality assurance in the school system. A major part of quality assurance with regard to the pedagogical and administrative tasks of the individual schools is usually implemented by procedures, laws or ordinances that are input-oriented and applicable across the schools.

The Office of Education is responsible for the consolidation and the advancement of the educational system at the state schools. This particularly includes staff policy (initial evaluation of teachers is taking place during the job interview) as well as educational controlling (School Law, Art. 106).

Inspectorate:

External evaluation of the schools and teachers is taking place via the statutory inspections. Inspectors at Kindergarten, primary and lower secondary schools are subordinated to the Office of Education. Supervisory body at the Gymnasium and at the Vocational Baccalaureate School is the Teaching Commission that is composed of various external experts. It advises the Office of Education, the school management, teacher departments as well as individual teachers and has supervisory function at classroom visits regarding the quality of lessons and teachers.

The Teaching Commission particularly considers if teaching in the various subjects is appropriate to fulfill the curriculum in pedagogical and methodological regards.

The Teaching Commission further examines whether student assessment and student promotion conform to standards at Swiss and Austrian baccalaureate schools.

The design of the inspectorate helps to consider quality assurance at schools and in the teaching process. Inspectors cooperate with the school administrations and are obliged to make a formal interview with all the teachers every two years. In a detailed conversation the teacher and her or his direct supervisor evaluate the teacher's achievements.

External evaluations at schools are being carried out by the Pedagogical Division of the Office of Education roughly every five years.

Internal Evaluation

Planning processes and the implementation of internal evaluation are the individual school's own responsibility, it is the institution itself that chooses topics and approaches. Basic documents are the school’s mission statement and the annual programme. Further criteria include classroom management, lesson structure and observation of lessons.

National standardised examinations show an overview of the subject performance of the students. The tests are being carried out in Liechtenstein in years three, five and eight in the subjects German and mathematics, in addition there is a test of English in years five and eight, too. The results of these standardised tests serve to further education quality at the schools. They influence the development of curricula and provide valuable information about teaching practice for the teachers.

School Level:

At school level it is the responsibility of staff and the school's management to consider issues of internal evaluation. They decide on the relevant approaches and methods.

Lesson Level:

At the lesson level the teachers are obliged to perform self-evaluation in cooperation with the school's management and the relevant inspectors.

Vocational Education and Training (VET)

Responsible Bodies

Supervision of vocational education and training is carried out by the Office of Vocational Training and Career Counselling. The educational part of dual training, vocational education at school as well as professional tertiary education (ISCED 5B) are performed at Swiss institutions and are therefore the responsibility of these authorities.

In addition, the concept of VET includes an obligation of internal quality assurance for the providers of vocational training.

Approaches and Methods

Companies intending to offer apprenticeships must be approved. They place an application in this respect at the Office of Vocational Training and Career Counselling. Future vocational trainers have to undergo specific training in order to qualify for the training of apprentices. The Law on Vocational Education and Training obliges the providers of training of professional practice or rather the training companies to guarantee the ongoing quality development.

Two instruments for the quality assessment of the VET companies and for the evaluation of inter-company courses are represented in QualiCarte and QualüK.

The learning objectives are prescribed in the relevant ordinances. The learning progress of the apprentices are regularly assessed by the providers of VET (training company and school).