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Liechtenstein:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

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Overview Liechtenstein

Contents

Liechtenstein:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Liechtenstein:Historical Development

Liechtenstein:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Liechtenstein:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Liechtenstein:Political and Economic Situation

Liechtenstein:Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Liechtenstein:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Liechtenstein:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Private Education

Liechtenstein:National Qualifications Framework

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Liechtenstein:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Funding in Education

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Higher Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training Funding

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Liechtenstein:First Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Bachelor

Liechtenstein:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Second Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Liechtenstein:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Distribution of Responsibilities

Liechtenstein:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Liechtenstein:Main Providers

Liechtenstein:Main Types of Provision

Liechtenstein:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Liechtenstein:Teachers and Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Management and Other Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Educational Support and Guidance

Liechtenstein:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Liechtenstein:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Liechtenstein:Mobility and Internationalisation

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Liechtenstein:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in School Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Liechtenstein:European Perspective

Liechtenstein:Legislation

Liechtenstein:Institutions

Liechtenstein:Bibliography

Liechtenstein:Glossary

“Liechtenstein is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis; the power of the State is embodied in the Reigning Prince and in the People and shall be exercised under the conditions set forth in the provisions of this Constitution” (Article 2 of the 1921 Constitution).

Governement

The Government is Liechtenstein's ultimate executive body. As a collegial body comprising the Prime Minister and four Ministers, the Government reports to both the Parliament (the ultimate legislative authority) and the Reigning Prince (the head of state). The Government is elected for a period of four years by the Prince based on a recommendation by the Parliament. The seat of the Government is Vaduz, the capital of Liechtenstein. Each of Liechtenstein's two main regions, the Oberland (south) and the Unterland (north), has the right to at least two members of Government.

According to the constitution “the way the government is attending to political issues is partly a collegial process and partly a departmental one”. Every member of Government has been assigned certain political fields, the following shows the current assignment of the ministries: 

  • Ministry for General Government Affairs and Finance
  • Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Education and Culture
  • Ministry for Social Affairs
  • Ministry for Home Affairs, Justice and Economic Affairs
  • Ministry for Infrastructure, Environment and Sport

The departments of economy, justice, sports and culture are allocated to the ministries, resulting in adapted designations of the ministries. The Ministry for Education in the current terms of government is under the supervision of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Education and Culture. 

The Prime Minister

The Constitution gives the Prime Minister (PM) certain privileges and powers. For example, the PM is responsible for all affairs delegated by the Prince and for countersigning laws as well as decrees and edicts issued by the Prince or with his authority. Furthermore, the PM keeps the Reigning Prince informed about government affairs. Only the PM takes an oath of office before the Reigning Prince or the Regnant; the other members of the Government and the state officials are sworn in by the PM. All laws, decrees and sovereign resolutions enter into force or become valid only once they have been signed by the PM.


The Parliament

The Parliament or Landtag consists of 25 members (MP). In the State structure of the Principality of Liechtenstein with its dualistic concept, the Parliament or Landtag as the legislative body has the important function of representing all the citizens of the country. As the Liechtenstein State Parliament it is directly elected by the people under a proportional representation electoral system. The election district of the Upper Country elects 15 MPs and the one of the Lower Country 10 MPs. The Landtag is convoked and closed by the Reigning Prince. The Reigning Prince also has the right to dissolve Parliament for important reasons. 
The principal task of the Landtag is lawmaking. For a bill to become law, not only is the approval of the Landtag required but also the sanction of the Reigning Prince, the countersignature of the Head of the Government and the announcement in the Legal Gazette. Every law adopted by the Landtag that has not been declared urgent and every international treaty approved by the Parliament may be submitted to a referendum.

Legislative References

The Municipalities

The municipalities autonomously arrange and administer their own affairs in their own sphere of influence and under the supervision of the state. They implement responsibilities that have been assigned by the state. Political municipal rights include the right to vote, universal suffrage and eligibility, and the right to initiative and referendum. 
The municipalities' own sphere of influence includes everything that touches the municipalities' interest and that may be clearly organised and administered by the municipalities. Beyond these activities the municipalities may autonomously carry out further tasks as long as state regulations don't contradict. 
Assigned duties include affairs of the state that must be seen to due to legislation. The municipalities are obliged to participate in implementing the law and are provided with the necessary means. Legislation including the participation of the municipalities must clarify the political issues to belong to the municipalities' sphere of influence or to be assigned as duties of the state. 

Legislative References

The People

The people do not only have the right the elect the Parliament (Landtag), they may in addition enforce the Landtag to convene by way of initiative or dissolve the Parliament by referendum. The right of vote includes the voters' choice to demand a referendum on parliamentary decisions. The Landtag may however declare legislative or constitutional amendments and financial resolutions urgent , a step that does exclude a referendum. 

The Reigning Prince 

The Reigning Prince has various options at his hands to influence parliamentary decisions or the Parliament's very existence. Every single law, including the financial resolutions, need to be sanctioned by the Reigning Prince. It is the Reigning Prince's right to convoke the Parliament at the beginning of the year and to close the parliamentary year. Without princely convocation the Landtag has no autonomous right of assembly during the year. Throughout the year the Reigning Prince may dissolve or suspend the Parliament for substantial grounds for a maximum of three months.