Liechtenstein:Glossary

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Overview Liechtenstein

Contents

Liechtenstein:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Liechtenstein:Historical Development

Liechtenstein:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Liechtenstein:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Liechtenstein:Political and Economic Situation

Liechtenstein:Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Liechtenstein:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Liechtenstein:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Private Education

Liechtenstein:National Qualifications Framework

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Liechtenstein:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Funding in Education

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Higher Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training Funding

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Liechtenstein:First Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Bachelor

Liechtenstein:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Second Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Liechtenstein:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Distribution of Responsibilities

Liechtenstein:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Liechtenstein:Main Providers

Liechtenstein:Main Types of Provision

Liechtenstein:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Liechtenstein:Teachers and Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Management and Other Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Educational Support and Guidance

Liechtenstein:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Liechtenstein:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Liechtenstein:Mobility and Internationalisation

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Liechtenstein:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in School Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Liechtenstein:European Perspective

Liechtenstein:Legislation

Liechtenstein:Institutions

Liechtenstein:Bibliography

Liechtenstein:Glossary

Anlehre

Training for a semi-skilled job providing individual basic education in certain aspects of a given profession. It permits young people who, because of their state of health, their intellectual capacities or because of other circumstances, are not or not yet able to meet the requirements of a common apprenticeship to train for their future professional lives.

Amt für Berufsbildung und Berufsberatung

The Office of Vocational Training and Vocational Guidance is the central office in charge of the entire organisation and administration of basic and further vocational education.

Berufsbildungsbeirat

The Council for Vocational Education and Training is appointed by the government. The terms of office coincide with the Schools Council's. Its seven members regard applications towards the recognition of vocational training and courses, or are concerned with planning training programmes to be implemented in Liechtenstein; in addition they issue training regulations, and implement experimental school structures in vocational education.

Berufsmatura

Final examination taken at Berufsmaturitätsschule/Berufsmittelschule (vocational baccalaureate schools). The Berufsmatura (vocational baccalaureate) entitles to study at any higher education institution in Liechtenstein and Austria and at universities of applied sciences in Switzerland.

Berufsmaturitätsschule

Berufsmaturitätsschulen (vocational baccalaureate schools) provide an extended general education to those who have completed a basic vocational education and training (apprenticeship) and who wish to follow a higher education course (ISCED 5A). The Berufsmaturitätsschule can be attended by those who have successfully completed an apprenticeship lasting at least three years.

Berufsmaturakommission

The Vocational Baccalaureate Committee is responsible for the procedures leading to certification at Vocational Baccalaureate School. Their prominent duties include supervising the final oral exams, approving and finalising exam marks and final marks; they also decide on the final qualifications at the Vocational Baccalaureate, and settle questions on candidates' special applications.

Besondere schulische Massnahmen

This collective term designates all measures and means of support available within the framework of regular schools but which do not require the particular assistance offered by Sonderschule, i.e. special school.

Duales System

Vocational education and training is carried out in a dual system which is of great educational importance to Liechtenstein. Roughly 65% of the students complete an apprenticeship after leaving compulsory school. Apprenticeships are organised in close cooperation with businesses from trade and industry, of the service sector and administration. At the moment about 1'200 apprenticeship positions are registered.

Fachmaturitätsschule / Fachmittelschule

Specialised baccalaureate school.

Fachschaft

Teacher department. Consists of teacher responsible, respectively teaching the same subject.

Familienergänzende Kinderbetreuung

Supplementary childcare supports families in Liechtenstein. It encourages a better balance between family and working life, serves the integration and socialisation of children and promotes their development. It consists of voluntary services which parents use at their discretion.

Gymnasium

Higher secondary school (baccalaureate school). It imparts a comprehensive consolidated general education to its pupils and aims at leading them to Maturität (baccalaureate) and preparing them for university studies.

Kindergarten

Nursery school institution offering pre-school education during 2 years for 4 to 6 years old children.

Lehre

The major part of the students, i.e. around 55%, start vocational education and training (VET) at upper secondary school in the form of an apprenticeship that usually lasts for three to four years. In this dual system students attend a VET school along with the practical training in the host company. The leaving certificate (certificate of proficiency) entitles to attend programmes of advanced vocational education at tertiary level. In the course of the apprenticeship or after finishing it apprentices have the opportunity to attend Vocational Baccalaureate School giving access to higher education.

Lehrabschlussprüfung

Apprenticeship certificate. After having concluded basic vocational education, apprentice is acknowledged to have achieved vocational ability by being presented the apprenticeship certificate and a regular certificate quoting the individual marks achieved.

Lehrerkonferenz

Staff meetings include all the teachers teaching at a particular school. Meetings may focus on thematic or departmental topics (e.g. the departments at Liechtenstein Gymnasium). Staff meetings particularly consider questions of school development, they also supply their own house rules 
Staff meetings are run by the school head. Decisions are based on simple majority; for particularly important matters a qualified majority may be applicable. In the event of a tied vote the head of school has the casting vote. If the head of school is not in the deputy head takes the chair.

Matura

The successful cempletion of the final examination at Gymnasium lead to the Matura (baccalaureate). The Matura entitles to study at any higher education institution, including universities in Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Austria without having to take any further examination.

Maturakommission

The Baccalaureate Commission at Gymnasium and at Vocational Upper Secondary School are responsible for the implementation of the final exam in close cooperation with the rector's office. Their most important tasks as groups of experts are to supervise the final oral exams, to approve and confirm the examination and graduation marks, to decide on the achievement of the final exam of the vocational upper secondary school and to settle special applications from exam candidates.

Oberschule

Lower secondary school of Sekundarstufe I providing general education and presenting different levels of standard. Its pupils usually tend to prepare for professions in skilled trade.

Pädagogische Arbeitsstelle

The Pedagogical Division of the Office of Education deals with any kind of questions on education. Tasks include information and advice on new developments in education, developing concepts and problemsolving as well as leading pedagogical projects and moderations.

Pflichtschule

Compulsory schooling. This includes the Primarstufe (primary level) and Sekundarstufe I (secondary level I).

Oberschule

Type of (lower) secondary school of Sekundarstufe I providing general education and presenting different levels of standard. Its pupils usually tend to prepare for professions in skilled trade.

Primarschule

The first five of totally nine years of compulsory schooling. Primary school is divided into a lower cycle (Unterstufe, the first and second forms) and an intermediate cycle (Mittelstufe, the third to fifth forms).

Realschule

Intermediate secondary school of Sekundarstufe I. It imparts an extended and consolidated basic education and prepares its pupils for training in skilled trades as well as for professions with advanced requirements. Moreover, it also serves as a basis for the attendance of Gymnasium.

Sekundarstufe (Sek. I / Sek. II)

The term refers to school education and basic vocational education attended after Primarstufe. It is divided into Sekundarstufe I (pupils from twelve to sixteen years of age) and Sekundarstufe II (until 19 years).

Schulamt

The Office of Education is in charge of the central organisation and administration of the entire system of school education.

Schulrat

The responsibilities of the Schools Council include decisions in appeals, transferring students to another type of school, allowing the early start of school, the exemption from compulsory education, and determining compulsory in-service training for the teaching staff etc. Implementing the Schools Council's tasks has been transferred to the Office of Education by ordinance. 

Schulleitung

Liechtenstein started setting up school administrations already in the seventies and regulated their responsibilities in detailed ordinances. In the course of time the mainly organisational and administrative tasks were extended and gradually included more pedagogical executive functions. In 2012 professional school heads for all types of school were nationally introduced and regulated by law.

Schülerinnen-/ Schülerbeurteilung

Assessment contributes to shaping the learning processes in the lessons in such a way that each child can achieve his/her learning goals. It provides knowledge of the level of performance of each child and of the whole class so that the effect of the teaching can be checked. Assessment is also an important source of information for the parents and an important basis for decisions on further educational pathways within the school system

Spezielle Einschulung

For children who are somewhat backward in development at the decisive moment, there are special provisions - known as special preparatory classes - by means of which they are supported and prepared for the demands of the first or second stage of the primary school. This is based on targeted support diagnostics under conditions of the maximum possible individual attention.

Tageseltern

Day-care parents look after one or more additional children of a mixed age, mostly along with their own children, for a few hours or for the whole day. In order to be allowed to offer these services families require authorisation from the Social Services Department (as a rule, from 40 paid hours a month working in childcare).

Unterrichtskommission

The Teaching Commission at the Liechtenstein Gymnasium and at vocational upper secondary school observes tasks of counselling and supervision on behalf of the government at both schools. It consists of external experts, mainly from Switzerland or Austria, with long work experience in teaching, in teacher education and in staff appraisal; it is appointed for a period of four years. The Teaching Commission meets once a year, the meetings are chaired by the Office of Education.