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Liechtenstein:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

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Overview Liechtenstein

Contents

Liechtenstein:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Liechtenstein:Historical Development

Liechtenstein:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Liechtenstein:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Liechtenstein:Political and Economic Situation

Liechtenstein:Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Liechtenstein:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Liechtenstein:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Private Education

Liechtenstein:National Qualifications Framework

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Liechtenstein:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Liechtenstein:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Liechtenstein:Funding in Education

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Higher Education Funding

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training Funding

Liechtenstein:Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Liechtenstein:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Liechtenstein:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Liechtenstein:Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Liechtenstein:First Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Bachelor

Liechtenstein:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Second Cycle Programmes

Liechtenstein:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Liechtenstein:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Liechtenstein:Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Distribution of Responsibilities

Liechtenstein:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Liechtenstein:Main Providers

Liechtenstein:Main Types of Provision

Liechtenstein:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Liechtenstein:Teachers and Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Management and Other Education Staff

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Liechtenstein:Management Staff for Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Educational Support and Guidance

Liechtenstein:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Liechtenstein:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Liechtenstein:Mobility and Internationalisation

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Liechtenstein:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Liechtenstein:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in School Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Liechtenstein:National Reforms in Higher Education

Liechtenstein:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Liechtenstein:European Perspective

Liechtenstein:Legislation

Liechtenstein:Institutions

Liechtenstein:Bibliography

Liechtenstein:Glossary

The education sector is a primary responsibility of the state which is the supreme supervisor and decision maker and has to provide adequate education according to the constitution (art. 14-16).

Compulsory schooling is guaranteed in the constitution together with the attendance in compulsory education free of charge at state schools, as well as the approval of private education subject to the regulations for state schools (curriculum, school days, qualifications of teaching staff). The constitution also essentially regulates promotion and support of education in general and the allocation of grants. Any discrimination on the basis of gender or disability is not allowed.

The actual School Law, essentially from 1971, comprehensively regulates the pre-school sector (Kindergarten), primary school education and general education secondary schools. Ordinances specify the aspects of the constitution concerning structure and organisation of the various types of school, their curricula, and the details of assessment; transition between schools as well as transfer between classes are detailed, too.

The legal framework for vocational education and training is laid down in the Law on Vocational Education and Training (VET; March 2008) which also specifies the details of advanced vocational education at tertiary level, together with the elements of continuing professional education and training (CET). In addition the Law on Vocational Education and Training essentially secures the access to places of training and study in foreign vocational schools and VET institutions for interested students from Liechtenstein.

The Law on Higher Education (November 2004) sets the framework within which all types of institutions of higher education are informed about approval procedures (accreditation), about quality assurance, admission, study structure and the range of study programmes according to Bologna, about the grades, about the use of the Dublin descriptors referencing the learning outcomes (NQFL-HE), as well as on continuing tertiary education.

The Higher Education Law further specifies the right to self-administration (administration of staff, development of curricula, assessment rules and study procedures etc.) and thus allows greater autonomy. It also points out the freedom of research and teaching.

The Law on the Promotion of Adult Education defines the conditions of promotion of general adult education by the state. Coordination is implemented by the „Adult Education Liechtenstein“ Foundation.

The two-year Kindergarten is seen as the traditional form of pre-school education and is regarded to be an important preparatory element for primary school education. According to this view the national curriculum includes learning objectives for this type of education. Attendance is optional, however almost all the children attend Kindergarten before starting primary school. Attendance at Kindergarten is free of charge consistent with the regulations on compulsory education at state schools.

Compulsory education lasts nine years, starting at the age of six for five years at primary school; it ends with the school-leaving qualifications after four years of lower secondary school. A formative element of the education at lower secondary school is the three-tier education system based on school performance; another typical trait is the two-tier system in upper secondary education, incorporating the system of general education and the vocational education scheme.

Vocational education and training is carried out in a dual system which is of great educational importance to Liechtenstein. Roughly 65% of the students complete an apprenticeship after leaving compulsory school. Apprenticeships are organised in close cooperation with the businesses. Roughly 700 businesses from trade and industry, of the service sector and administration offer education positions in around 80 professions. At the moment about 1'200 apprenticeship positions are registered.

On tertiary level the two-tier model finds an appropriate continuation with higher education at universities, at universities of applied sciences, at universities of teacher education, and at colleges of advanced vocational education. In this respect, the political motto is widely acknowledged saying that the various tracks of education may be „different but equivalent“ in professional acceptance and social appreciation.

A further important objective is the intention to secure the transition between the various paths of education according to the motto „no training without certificate“. These two political maxims characterise the discussions and courses of development in the education system.

Support of individuals is implemented by the grant system of the state, the amount of financial support is based on the principles of subsidiarity (related to income and assets); this is to say that until the age of 25 the parents are also required to participate in the education of their children.

The wholistic educational mandate of the state is expressed in the curricula and in the broad promotion of aesthetic and artistical education, in sports training, via specific offers (Music School, School of Arts, Sports School). This promotion is closely coordinated with the relevant federations that play a major role in Liechtenstein.

References


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