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Latvia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

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Overview Latvia

Contents

Latvia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Latvia:Historical Development

Latvia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Latvia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Latvia:Political and Economic Situation

Latvia:Organisation and Governance

Latvia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Latvia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Latvia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Latvia:Organisation of Private Education

Latvia:National Qualifications Framework

Latvia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Latvia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Latvia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Latvia:Funding in Education

Latvia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Latvia:Higher Education Funding

Latvia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Latvia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Latvia:Organisation of Programmes for all Pre-Primary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for all Pre-Primary Education

Latvia:Assessment in Programmes for all Pre-Primary Education

Latvia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Latvia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Latvia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Latvia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Latvia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Latvia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Higher Education

Latvia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Latvia:First Cycle Programmes

Latvia:Bachelor

Latvia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Latvia:Second Cycle Programmes

Latvia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Latvia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Latvia:Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Latvia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Latvia:Main Providers

Latvia:Main Types of Provision

Latvia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Latvia:Teachers and Education Staff

Latvia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Latvia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Latvia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Latvia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Management and Other Education Staff

Latvia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Latvia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Latvia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Latvia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Quality Assurance

Latvia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Latvia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Educational Support and Guidance

Latvia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Latvia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Latvia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Latvia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Latvia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Latvia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Mobility in Higher Education

Latvia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Latvia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Latvia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Latvia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Latvia:National Reforms in School Education

Latvia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Latvia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Latvia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Latvia:European Perspective

Latvia:Legislation

Latvia:Glossary

Language of Instruction

Implementation of bilingual education or ethic minority education reform in Russian and other non-Latvian language schools started on September 1, 1999. In accordance with the Education Law, all state and municipal general education schools started to implement the ethnic minority education programme aiming at transforming all Russian language schools into bilingual schools. Transition gradually involved pupils of integrated primary and lower-secondary schools. Therefore, completion of the first step of the bilingual reform took nine years. First-grade pupils who started in the 1999/2000 school year completed their bilingual nine-year compulsory education in the spring of 2008.

The aim of bilingual education is to give all nine-year compulsory school graduates a good knowledge of both Latvian and their own native language. Bilingual education can be defined as an educational process in which pupils concurrently use two languages; hence, the other language (in this case, Latvian) changes its status from the object of learning to the tool of learning. Curriculum being developed according to the specifications and needs of each ethnic minority, bilingual education gives ethnic minority children the opportunity to acquire the Latvian language and culture without losing their sense of ethnic belonging.

Four different models of integrated primary and lower-secondary ethnic minority education programmes were prepared during the initial stage of bilingual education reform process. These four models had advisory status and determined the ways different variants of bilingual education could be implemented, depending on the choice of parents and pupils, their Latvian language proficiency and qualification of teachers. Schools were also allowed to implement their own licensed programmes. There has been an obvious increase in pupils’ knowledge of the Latvian language during the implementation of bilingual education reform.

Several schools with Latvian language of instruction specializing in foreign languages teach several subjects in a foreign language, for example, Rīgas Franču licejs(French), Rīgas Valsts vācu ģimnāzija (German), Ziemeļvalstu ģimnāzija (Nordic languages).

Organisational Variations

In accordance with theEducation Law, there are four forms of education acquisition:
1) full-time education;
2) extramural education; a sub-category of the extramural education method – distance education;
3) self-education; and
4) education in the family.

Basic education pamatizglītība is provided in evening schools also in extramural form. Besides basic education pamatizglītība can also be acquired in the form of distance learning, for instance, at Riga Distance Education School.

Various general education schools provide with the opportunity to acquire their implemented educational programmes for external students (self-education).

In the first four years of integrated primary and lower-secondary education there is a possibility for parents to organize learning at home if a child has difficulties to communicate with classmates, or is at bad health, or the school does not have a possibility to ensure the necessary specific learning conditions. At the end of each school year such a pupil has to pass a test in order to transfer to the next class.

Boarding schools and custody places where children up to 18 years of age reside permanently should provide possibilities to acquire integrated primary and lower-secondary education. Children hospitalized protractedly also should receive tuition. Children staying at home because of sickness are subject to schooling at home as well.

It is possible to complete integrated primary and lower-secondary educational programme and achieve the first level of vocational qualification in basic vocational schools. Basic vocational education lasts maximum 2 years; pupils that have not completed lower-secondary education are accepted starting with the age of 15. Although the vocations acquired in these programmes are rather simple, this group of programmes is important to prevent social exclusion of young people. Completion of a basic vocational education programme leads to the certificate on basic vocational education apliecība par profesionālo pamatizglītību thus making pupils eligible for further studies at upper-secondary level.

Schools may also provide interest-related education possibilities. Some vocational music, art, dance and sport schools implement also integrated primary and lower-secondary education programme.

Persons who have passed the minimum permitted school-leaving age and have not acquired lower-secondary education may acquire lower-secondary education in the form of evening schools or distance learning, and graduate from school as external students.

Schools may offer pedagogical correction programmes for pupils with development problems or inadequate social behaviour. The aim of these classes is to favour acquirement of compulsory education of all school age children according to their educational needs. Admission of pupils to these classes is coordinated with parents. In pedagogical correction classes the following pupils are admitted:

  • pupils who need more time to learn the programme of compulsory education, pupils that have rambled ("street children") and therefore not attended school for a longer period of school;
  • pupils without developed motivation to learn who therefore have not acquired education in step with their age;
  • pupils who are disturbed to prepare home works and socialize because of malevolent environment in the family;

All pupils in pedagogical correction classes have a prolonged school day to prepare home works, participate in groups of interest-related education and other activities.

Social correction programmes are offered at social correction educational establishments. These programmes provide for the organisation of the values education for students and their preparation for social reintegration. Knowledge and skills required for independent life within the society are provided to minor law-breakers. Minor law-breakers are also given an opportunity to master professional skills.

In 2012/13, social correction education programmes were provided for 772 young people (at basic, upper-secondary and higher education level) and interest related programmes –  for 181 young people at custody.