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Latvia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

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Overview Latvia

Contents

Latvia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Latvia:Historical Development

Latvia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Latvia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Latvia:Political and Economic Situation

Latvia:Organisation and Governance

Latvia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Latvia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Latvia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Latvia:Organisation of Private Education

Latvia:National Qualifications Framework

Latvia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Latvia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Latvia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Latvia:Funding in Education

Latvia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Latvia:Higher Education Funding

Latvia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Latvia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Latvia:Organisation of Programmes for all Pre-Primary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for all Pre-Primary Education

Latvia:Assessment in Programmes for all Pre-Primary Education

Latvia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Latvia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Latvia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Latvia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Latvia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Latvia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Latvia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Latvia:Higher Education

Latvia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Latvia:First Cycle Programmes

Latvia:Bachelor

Latvia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Latvia:Second Cycle Programmes

Latvia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Latvia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Latvia:Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Latvia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Latvia:Main Providers

Latvia:Main Types of Provision

Latvia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Latvia:Teachers and Education Staff

Latvia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Latvia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Latvia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Latvia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Management and Other Education Staff

Latvia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Latvia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Latvia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Latvia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Quality Assurance

Latvia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Latvia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Educational Support and Guidance

Latvia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Latvia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Latvia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Latvia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Latvia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Latvia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Mobility in Higher Education

Latvia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Latvia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Latvia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Latvia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Latvia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Latvia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Latvia:National Reforms in School Education

Latvia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Latvia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Latvia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Latvia:European Perspective

Latvia:Legislation

Latvia:Glossary

The Ministry of Education and Scienceis the central executive institution for education in Latvia, under the overall direction of Parliament and the Cabinet of Ministers and within the framework of Latvia’s Constitution - Satversme - and laws.

Public pre-school institutions and schools providing general education (integrated primary and lower-secondary education and upper-secondary education) are the responsibility of municipalities and subject of supervision by the Ministry of Education and Science. Central government is directly responsible for most public special schools (e.g., for children with special needs) and most public vocational and secondary vocational schools. Higher education institutions have substantial autonomy in governance.

The Parliament Saeima has legislative power and the right to take decisions concerning the national budget. Saeima delegates concrete competence to other institutions, which participate in administration of the education system.

Cabinet of Ministers holds executive power. All administrative institutions of the State are under the authority of the Cabinet.

The Cabinet of Ministers:

  • determines the forms of state recognized documents on education, the criteria and the order of their dispensation;
  • determines the order how the state finances the private education establishments;
  • determines the order of study loans;
  • determines the order for accounting children who have reached compulsory school age;
  • affirms the constitutions of higher education institutions (except university type);
  • founds state education institutions and education support institutions;
  • determines the order of the registration and the accreditation of education institutions;
  • determines the order of the school head attestation in state and municipality schools;
  • determines the order and rules of the accreditation of higher educational institutions;
  • determines the order of the licensing and the accreditation of educational programmes;
  • approves the list of professions and posts for pedagogues;
  • approves requirements (in conformity with professions) for necessary education and professional qualification for pedagogues;
  • determines the order how the state organizes and finances publishing and purchasing of textbooks;
  • determines the payment for pedagogues;
  • determines the order of financing educational institutions, classes and boarding schools for people with special needs;
  • determines the state unitary policy and strategy on education and presents the conception on development of education for the coming four years to parliament (for approval);
  • determines national standards of education;
  • determines the minimum of expenses for implementing education programmes for one pupil;
  • determines the order how pupils are provided with preventive health care, first aid and security in the institution and its organized activities;
  • determines the work load of pedagogues;
  • determines the order of scholarship administration;
  • determines the order of financing informal education;
  • determines the order of organizing camps for children.

Ministry of Education and Science consists of six departments and three separate units, part of them responsible for definite spheres of education:
Department of Policy Initiatives and Development, Education Department, Higher Education, Science and Innovation Department, Sports and Youth Department, Department of Structural Funds and International Financial Instruments, Department of Provision and Finance, Communication and Document Management Division, Internal Audit Division and Human Resource Management Division.

The Ministry of Education and Science:

  • implements the state’s unitary policy and strategy of education;
  • develops drafts of regulatory enactments on education;
  • establishes the registers of educational establishments, educational programmes and pedagogues;
  • manages the licensing of educational programmes;
  • manages the accreditation of educational programmes and institutions;
  • organizes further education for pedagogues;
  • develops state’s standards in education;
  • elaborates suggestions and submits the request for allocation of the state’s budget to education, science, sport and activities of youth;
  • controls the legitimate use of funds from state’s budget in the supervised institutions;
  • co-ordinates cooperation between state’s educational institutions and other countries, and international organizations;
  • develops precepts for educational programmes according to educational standards (except for higher education);
  • develops exemplary regulations for educational and educational support institutions;
  • fixes state’s order for developing and publishing textbooks;
  • determines and co-ordinates the acquirement of education for pedagogues;
  • organizes assessment of professional qualifications for pedagogues and school heads;
  • determines the order of state’s examinations;
  • develops and implements actions for improvement of teaching process;
  • approves the regulations of colleges, state’s educational and educational support institutions;
  • employs directors of supervised institutions of the Ministry (except higher educational institutions);
  • suggests the dismissal of school heads in schools belonging to municipalities.

The following institutions are subordinated to the Ministry of Education and Science: State Education Development Agency, National Centre for EducationState Service of Education QualityState Agency Latvian Language Agency, Higher Education Quality Evaluation Centre, Academic Information Centre, Agency for International Programmes for Youth.

Other Ministries are competent to suggest the establishment, reorganization or liquidation of educational organizations. Ministries develop the content and standards for professional subjects and control the implementation of the standards in the supervised institutions. Ministries also control financial operations in the institutions they are obligated to supervise. However, the role of other ministries decreases, as transfer of education institutions under subordination of the Ministry of Education and Science is ongoing.

Consultations between various levels of education are followed out in the sittings of departments in the Ministry of Education and Science. Policy Coordination Department of the Ministry develops conceptions, plans strategically on issues of education, analyses information and provides coordination between regulations of various levels of education.

An important role in consultation of educational policy making also plays such state institutions as:

  • National Centre for Education - works with development and improvement of the Curriculum and National Examination system.
  • Council of Higher Education - influences policy on higher education. The Saeima confirms the Council of Higher Education of twelve members following the proposal of Minister of Education and Science. The delegates represent leaders of educational institutions, educational associations, Latvian Academy of Sciences, employers, and a trade union of employees of education and science. The Council works out the national concept for the development of higher education and higher educational establishments, envisaging the development of both state-founded higher educational establishments and of those founded by legal entities, as well as promotes equal and harmonized development of all kinds of higher educational establishments and of higher academic education and of higher professional education; works out long term plans and proposals for development of education and research within the system of higher education; works out proposals to raise the quality of the research activities of higher educational establishments, the qualifications of the staff and of the study programmes; forecasts the number of students necessary for development of the state in general and works out proposals regarding the number of students financed from the state budget in each branch.

The Ministry of Education and Science involves also non-governmental organisations in the work groups in the course of development of regulatory acts and policy planning documents.

Trade union of employees of education and science of Latvia unites employees from the field of education. Aims of the trade union are not only protection of rights of teaching staff, but also - advantage development of education and science in Latvia.