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Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

Steering Documents and Types of Activities

The pre-primary school curriculum follows the guidelines for pre-primary education and the first cycle of education, set by the Ministry of Education with ministerial decree no. 254/2012,sent to the schools starting from school year 2012/2013 and come into force in 2013/2014. These new guidelines replaced the national guidelines for personalized study plans and educational activities of 2004 as well as the curriculum guidelines of 2007.

According to new guidelines, the general aim of school is the harmonious and comprehensive development of the individual, in keeping with the principles of the Italian Constitution and European cultural tradition, to be achieved through the promotion of knowledge, respect of individual diversity and the active involvement of students and their families. The reference for these new guidelines is the Framework for Key Competences for Lifelong Learning set up by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union through the Recommendation of 18 December 2006.

Specifically, the aim of  pre-primary school is to promote the development of identity, autonomy and competence in children and to initiate them into citizenship. Five different fields of experience, each providing a range of objects, situations, images and languages related to the symbolic systems of our culture, progressively foster certain learning outcomes: the self and others; body and movement; images, sounds and colours; speech and words; knowledge of the world.

Each field of experience has specific competency development goals  to which teachers refer. These fields of experience point to cultural and teaching paths and help teachers direct their educational action towards the full development of children.

Starting from school year 2009/2010, the subject 'Citizenship and Constitution' was introduced to all schools, including pre-primary schools. It is not a separate subject and its content is developed through educational projects drawn up by individual schools. Starting from school year 2010/2011 the teaching of 'Citizenship and Constitution' became an objective that must be considered  by schools in their educational offer plan (C.M. n. 86 of 2010).

The specific learning objectives for Catholic religious education were approved by Decree of the President of the Republic, according to the Concordat rules. Those currently existing were established through Decree of the President of the Republic on 11 February 2010.

Teaching Methods and Materials

Teachers are free to choose teaching methods. However, the National guidelines for the curriculum establish some general criteria for the organisation of the learning environment:

  • balanced integration of the time dedicated to care, relationships and learning, with routines (reception, meal, body care, rest/sleep, etc.) regulating the pace of the day and representing a ‘safe foundation’ for new experiences and stimuli;
  • promotion of learning through action, exploration, contact with objects, nature, art, territory, in a playful dimension, as a typical form of relationship and knowledge;
  • provision of cosy, warm, tidy rooms with an attention to aesthetics;
  • unstrained management of time, so that children can spend the day serenely, play, explore, speak, understand, feel self-confident and secure in the activities they experiment;
  • educational approach of teachers oriented towards listening, guiding, interaction, communication mediation, continuous observation of the child, making themselves responsible for the child’s ‘world’, interpreting the child’s discoveries, offering support and encouragement to his/her learning developments.

Legislative References

Ministerial Decree 16 November 2012, no. 254 (National guidelines for the curriculum of pre-primary education a for the first cycle of education)

DPR 11 February 2010 (learning objectives for the Catholic religion)

Law 30 October 2008, no. 169 (introduction of the 'Citizenship and Constitutions' teaching)