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Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

ECEC and school education

Teachers of state schools can be distinguished as follows:

  • Teachers of pre-primary schools; 
  • Teachers of primary schools (generalist); 
  • Teachers of lower secondary schools (specialist); 
  • Teachers of upper secondary schools (specialist); 
  • Support teachers (pre-primary school and all school levels); 
  • Teachers of Catholic religion (pre-primary school and all school levels).

Teachers in State schools are civil servants with a private contract, which can be either temporary or permanent. The national collective labour contracts regulate teachers’ conditions of service.

Initial teacher education takes place at higher education level varies according to the level of education teachers will teach at:

  • Pre-primary and primary teachers should complete a specific single-cycle university programme, lasting 5 years, including traineeship activities to be carried out starting from the second year of studies; 
  • Secondary teachers should complete a second-cycle course lasting two years either at universities or at Afam institutions (in case of arts, music and dance teachers at both lower and upper secondary level), followed by one-year traineeship called ‘active formative traineeship’ (TFA).

Initial education and recruitment for secondary teachers is currently under reform, within the reform process started in 2015 with law 107 that has delegated the Government to issues specific decrees on some sectors of the education system.

The Government is expected to issue the delegated decrees within 17 April 2017. In particular, the decree on ITE regulates the re-organisation and simplification of the ITE and recruitment system of secondary teachers, in order to make the system more efficient for the increase of the social and cultural value of the teaching profession.

The reform foresees the direct access to the open competitions for teachers, after the obtainment of a second-cycle university qualification.

Those who pass the open competition start a three-year training, which includes a paid traineeship, aimed at the obtainment of a specialisation qualification and to the acquisition of teaching competences. The positive conclusion of the three-year training, gives the teacher the right to a permanent contract.

Continuing professional development is compulsory for teachers in state schools. According to the national collective labour contract, CPD activities are both a right and a professional duty, as they contribute to the development of teachers’ professional life. 

The same conditions apply also to teachers working in the adult education sector, as they are teachers of the State education system.

Higher education

University teaching staff include:

  • Full professors (professori ordinari or di prima fascia)
  • Associate professors (professori associati or di seconda fascia)
  • Fixed-term professors 
  • Permanent researchers (entered into service before 2010)
  • Researchers with fixed-term contract 
  • Researchers with research allowances; 
  • Native language collaborators and linguistic experts; 
  • Exchange lecturers in accordance with bilateral co-operation agreements.

The following paragraphs only focus on the figures of professors and researchers.

Entry to the profession and conditions of services of professors and researchers are regulated by central legislation. Given the different recruitment procedures that have been followed over the years, the information included in the paragraphs of this chapter on teaching staff at universities refer exclusively to professors and researchers recruited according to the most recent legislation (law 240/2010).

University professors do not undergo either a specific initial training or continuing professional development activities. Access to the recruitment procedures for full and associate professors requires the possession of the national scientific habilitation, which has been introduced in 2010. Researchers must have a PhD or other qualifications required for specific sectors.

The recruitment of professors and researchers takes place at university level through the publication of vacancies. Fixed-term professors are recruited directly by universities for integrative teaching needs.

Up to 2010, professors and researchers were recruited through open competitions assessing candidates’ qualifications and publications.

High level arts and music education institutions (Afam) institutions recruit their teaching staff through national lists.