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Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

 

Demographic situation

The Italian territory, with the exclusion of Republic of San Marino and Vatican City State, covers an area of 301 336 square km. The territory is made up of 35.18% of mountains, 41.65% of hills and 23.16% of plains. The 48.8% of the population lives in plain areas, the 38.9% on the hills and only the 12.3% on the mountains.

At 31 December 2014, residents in Italy were 60 795 612 (29 501 590 males and 31 294 022 females). The resident population has increased of approximately 13 000 units compared to the beginning of 2014. The increase in the number of the resident population in comparison with the previous year is due to the positive migration balance. In fact, in 2014, the migration component given by the difference between enrolments and cancellations has been equal to +141 303. On the contrary, the natural balance between births and deaths is -95 768 units with a birth rate of 8.3 per thousands. 
Foreigners regularly residing in Italy at 1st January 2015 were 5 014 437 (8.2% of the resident population), with an increase of 1.9% compared to 2014. The majority of foreign citizens comes from EU countries (29.7%), whereas the highest number of non-EU migrants come from central-east Europe (22.5%).

At 31 December 2014, the ratio between old population aged 65 and over and population aged 0-15, was equal to 157.7%, with a steady increase compared with the previous years. The aging process concerns the whole national territory; however, the aging rate is increasing in the Centre and in the North, whereas it is lower in the South with the lowest percentage in Campania (113.4%) which is the ’less old’ region of the country.

Life expectancy at birth is 80.2 years for males and 84.9 for females.

Source: ISTAT - Annuario statistico italiano 2015, pages 71-79.

Tables below show the most recent available statistical data on the economic and demographic situation and data in years 2000 and 2005:

Table 1 - Age distribution of the population


0-14 years
15-64 years
above 65 years
2000 14,4% 67,6% 18,0%
2005
14,1% 66,4% 19,5%
2014
13.8%
64.5%
21.7%













           




Table 2 - Rates of employment and unemployment


Employment Unemployment
2000 53,5% 10,6%
2005
57,5% 7,7%
2014
55.7%
12.7%

Table 3 - Immigration and migration flows


Enrolments from abroad
Cancellations to abroad
Total immigrant resident population 1st January
Percentage of the total resident population
2000 226 968
56 601
1 270 553 
2.2%
2005
325 673
65 029

2 402 157 

4.1%
2015
n.a.
n.a.
5 014 437
8.2%

Fonti: ISTAT - Annuario statistico italiano, years 2001-2015.

Languages

Italian is the official language; however, 12 minority languages, spoken by resident populations, are officially recognised, acknowledged and safeguarded. In particular, in some regions, minority languages are acknowledged as co-official languages and recognised equal to Italian (for example, in public offices, in the traffic signs, etc.). In Valle d'Aosta, French is taught as a mother tongue alongside Italian; in Trentino-Alto Adige there are German language, Italian language and Ladin schools and in Friuli-Venezia Giulia the Slovenian linguistic minorities are granted a special recognition, also as teaching language.

The other recognised minority languages are Friulan, Albanian, Catalan, Greek, Croatian, Provençal-French, Languedoc and Sardinian.

Specific regulations allow the use of the officially recognised minority languages at school (on request of pupils' families), in municipal, provincial and regional Councils, before the justice of the peace magistrate and in public offices.

The Ministry of education, university and research (MIUR) has arranged specific plans for intervention and financing to carry out national and local projects in the field of the study of languages and cultural traditions of the different linguistic minorities.

Religions

The most widespread religion in Italy is Roman Catholicism which is not, however, a State religion. The Republican Constitution states that "all citizens have equal dignity and are equal before the law without distinction of sex, race, language and religion".

The Italian Constitution establishes that the State and the Holy See are independent and sovereign and that relationships are ruled by the Lateran Treaty of 1929, subsequently amended in 1985. Legal relations between the Italian State and the Catholic Church are regulated by a Concordat, included in the Lateran Treaty, which makes provision, among other things, for the Catholic religion to be taught in state schools to those pupils who so request.

Relations between the State and the other religions are based on agreements with the respective representatives.