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Italy:Political and Economic Situation

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

In the last two decades, several governments, coming from opposite political coalitions, have been in power. This alternation of opposite governments has also affected the education system which has been under reform since the late 90s.

In fact, after a first reform of several sectors of the education system, introduced from the centre-left coalition, a second reform process of the whole education system was approved by the subsequent centre-right government through law n. 53 of 28 March 2003.

However, a new Parliament, with a different political majority, and a new Government, settled in after the general elections of April 2006, have adopted various provisions to suspend the implementation of the reform of 2003. They have, at the same time, started a review process of the reform that has also remained unimplemented. In particular, such provisions have involved the reform of the second cycle of education, curricula at primary and lower secondary levels, initial teacher training and the procedures for their recruitment. Furthermore, in 2007 the same Government has extended compulsory education up to 10 years, corresponding to 16 years of age of pupils (law 296/2006 and DM 139/2007).

In April 2008, following further general elections, a new alternation in the Parliament majority has taken place and a new Government, which ended its mandate in November 2011, settled in. The Government has introduced some changes in the education system, through a public expense reduction plan (law 133/2008) and the subsequent urgent measures on education (law 169/2008). Some of these changes foresee the re-organisation of the second cycle of education, implemented in school year 2010/2011, and also the reform of the initial teacher training and of the higher education system, both recently approved

A transition government was in power in 2011-2013, until new elections took place in February 2013. These recent elections resulted in a coalition government made up of representatives of both the centre-left and centre-right parties that was replaced by a second coalition government at the end of 2013.

During the transition government, policies on education concentrated on the digitalisation of the school with compulsory online enrolments and on boosting the use of digital books. Since 2013, policies on education have mainly concerned the reduction of ELET, the quality assurance of the education and training system and the recruitment and conditions of service of teachers. Further details on the most recent interventions on the education and training system are available in the ongoing reform section.

In year 2014, the GDP value was equal to 1 616 254 million euro, with a 0.4% increase in comparison with year 2013 and a decrease of 0.4% in terms of volume.

The average number of employed in 2014 is equal to 22 279 000 units (55.7% against the 64.8% at European level), with an increase of 88 000 units per year, equal to 0.4%. This positive trend is mainly due to the increase of the retirement age. The foreign labour force (+111 000) has increased while the national labour force has decreased (-23 000). The women’s employment has registered an increase of 0.6% (+57 000), while the incidence of the men’s employment has increased of 0.2% (+31 000).

The unemployment rate in the 2014 was 12.7% (+0.5%).

Source: ISTAT – Annuario statistico italiano, 2015, pg 327-329, 409.

Table 1 - Public expenditure on education as a % of total GDP

2000 4.55%
2005
4.41%
2011
4.29

Source: Eurostat