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Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

This chapter provides an overview of national reforms and policy developments since 2014 in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels: Early childhood education and care; School education; VET and Adult learning; Higher education; and Transversal skills and Employability.

Moreover, the present introductory section describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system, as well as the decision-making process and the main actors involved.

Finally, the section on the European perspective provides links to European strategies in which education and training have a prominent role.

Overall national education strategy and key objectives

Following the recent economic crisis, the governments that have alternated in the last few years have focused their efforts on the measures and intervention that would better reduce the effects of the crisis itself. In this economic and political frame, also the education sector, an important segment of the cultural and professional development of each person, has had special attention.

In particular, also in coherence with the objectives set at European level, attention is given to the reduction of early leaving from education and training, to the full implementation of school autonomy, to the quality of education, to students' competences, to tackling social inequalities and to guaranteeing the right to study and equal opportunities to education and training to everyone.

The most recent reform in the education and training system is included in the bill called ‘The good school’ introduced by the Government and approved by the Parliament in July 2015 as law no. 107.

The reform process started in September 2014, with the publication of the document ‘La buona scuola – Facciamo crescere il paese’ (‘The good school – let’s make the country grow’) which defined the strategy that the Government and the Ministry of Education set for improving the quality of the Italian school system. The document was made available for public debate on the website labuonascuola.gov.it, until 15 November 2014.

Following the public consultation, on 12 March 2015, the Council of Ministers approved a Draft law on the reform of the education system called ‘La buona scuola’ (‘The good school’) that, after the parliamentary approval, has become law no. 107.

Law no. 107 regulates several aspects of the education system, in particular the autonomy of schools providing them with human and financial resources and with the necessary organisational and teaching flexibility.

The implementation of some dispositions of the law will take place gradually through specific regulations.

Law 107 has also delegated the Government to adopt one or more decrees within eighteen months from the publication of the law (mid-January 2017). These decrees cover school education and ECEC. One of the delegated decrees aims at the re-organisation and harmonisation of all the legislation in force on education. The Government approved the draft decrees at deadline and submitted the texts to the relevant parliamentary commissions for advice. The definitive approval of the decrees is expected in the next few months.

Details on the implementation developments of the law are available in the following sections.

Overview of the education reform process and drivers

In general, reforms of the education and training system follow the procedures of all legislation as established by the Italian Constitution. The legislative procedure involves both the two Chambers of the Parliament: each bill, introduced to one of the Chambers, is examined by the relevant Commission and, afterwards, by the Chamber that votes the text for the final approval.

The Government can also act as legislator by issuing legislative decrees and law decrees.

The Government issues legislative decrees according to principles, criteria and deadlines established by the Parliament that delegates the Government with a specific law. 

The Government autonomously adopts law-decrees, under its own responsibility, in case of urgent matters requiring immediate intervention. In this case, the Parliament has 60 days to convert the decree into law, with or without amendments; otherwise the law-decree ceases its effects.
Moreover, the Government applies and integrates laws through implementing regulations.