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Italy:National Reforms in School Education

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

2017

Approval of the draft decrees on school education

On 14 January, the Government has approved seven draft Decrees on school education, as foreseen by law 107/2017, which delegated the Government to adopt the decrees by mid-January 2017. After the recent governmental approval, the draft Decrees have been submitted to the relevant parliamentary commission for advice, with the involvement of stakeholders. The definitive approval is expected in the next few months.

Another decree, on the re-organisation of the whole legislation on education into a consolidated act will follow a different approval procedure.
The seven approved decrees on school education deal with:

  • The initial teacher education and teachers’ recruitment procedures
  • The promotion of school inclusion of students with special educational needs
  • The revision of vocational education
  • The right to study 
  • The promotion of the classical culture
  • The revision of dispositions on the Italian education institutions abroad
  • The revision of regulations on students’ assessment

Here below a brief description of the decrees.

Initial teacher education and teachers’ recruitment procedures

At present, teachers at lower and upper secondary level need to complete their initial training by attending a specific one-year traineeship (TFA), which gives access to the open competition for teachers. According to the reform, holding a second-level higher qualification will give access to the open competition for teachers. Those passing the competition will attend a three-year training, two years of which spent at school. At the end of the third year, teachers will have a permanent contract.

Promotion of school inclusion of students with special educational needs

The draft decree on school inclusion foresees the simplification of the procedures to activate the support measures for pupils with special educational needs. Support measures will take into account the needs of pupils with disabilities in a wider perspective, instead of focusing mainly on the type of disability and on its seriousness.


Revision of vocational school education

The focus is on the innovation of the vocational offer and on the revision of study programmes in order to avoid overlapping with the technical paths and with the vocational training organised at regional level.

The present six branches of studies will increased to 11 and the percentage of time dedicated to branch-related learning will increased to 40% in the first two years of study and to 50% in the last three years.

Starting from school year 2018/2019, vocational institutes and regional vocational education and training providers will be part of the national network of vocational schools, created in order to have a more efficient vocational offer.

Right to study

The decree on the right to study foresees the allocation of 10 million euros to students attending the last two years of upper secondary education for purchasing textbooks, for mobility and transport and to access cultural services. Students will also be exempted from fees.

Promotion of the classical culture

The teaching of music, dance, cinema and theatre, arts, design, writing will increase, in particular at upper secondary level.

Work-based learning will involve also public and private subjects working in the field of art conservation and production.

Revision of Italian education institutions abroad

The draft decree includes dispositions aimed at harmonising the educational offer abroad with the offer in the country. Teachers will stay abroad for 6 years instead of 9 years and 50 new teachers will join the teaching staff of Italian schools abroad.

Revision of regulations on students’ assessment

The draft decree foresees some changes in the final examination at lower and upper secondary level starting from 2018.

At lower secondary level, the written tests in the final exam will reduce from six to three (Italian, mathematics and foreign language). The standardised national test that, at present, is part of the final examination, will be held during the last school year.

At upper secondary level, written test in the final exam will reduce from three to two (Italian and a subject related to the course of study). Work-based activities will be taken into account for the admission to the exam.

In the calculation of the final mark, the overall evaluation of the last three years of studies will count up to 40 points (now it counts 25), while the two written tests and the oral test will count up to 20 points each.

At all levels, standardised national tests will include English and will be held during the last year of primary, lower secondary and upper secondary level. Standardised tests will be taken into account for the admission to the final exams at lower and upper secondary level, but will no longer count in the calculation of the final marks.

2016

Evaluation of school managers

Between August and September 2016, the Ministry of education published a directive and specific guidelines regulating the procedure for the evaluation of school managers.

The article on the management staff in school education describes in details the procedure for the evaluation of school managers applied from school year 2016/2017.

Although the legislation into force, in particular the Legislative Decree 165/2001 (on civil servants) and the Presidential Decree 80/2013 (on the National evaluation system) already foresaw the evaluation of school managers, the procedures had not started yet.

More recently, law 107/2015 (on the reform of the education system) has re-launched the theme and has established that the evaluation of school managers will take into account the following general criteria:

  1. organisational and managing competences, correctness, transparency, efficiency and efficacy of the managerial activity related to the goals set for the three-year period of assignment;
  2. enhancement of individual and professional commitment and merit of the school staff;
  3. professional and social feedback on the school manager’s performance;
  4. contribution to the improvement of students’ learning success and of organisational and teaching processes;
  5. management of the school, promotion  of participation and of collaboration within the school and with the social context. The Ministry of education is expected to publish soon a specific directive and guidelines containing methods and criteria for the evaluation of school managers.

Beside the criteria above, also the type, dimensions and complexity of the school are taken into account.

2015

'The good school': reform of the national education and training system

In July 2015, the Parliament approved the Draft lawLa buona scuola’  (‘The good school’) published by the Government in March 2015. The draft law has been published as law no. 107.

Law 107/2015 covers different areas of the school sector. We list here below some of the main areas:

  • Establishment of the number of school staff based on a three-year plan made by the school according to the autonomy of schools;
  • Extraordinary plan for the recruitment of temporary teachers (approximately 100 000) and, subsequently, recruitment exclusively through  competition every three years;
  • Improvement of alternance traning pathways and increase in their workload (please see the articles on teaching and learning in general and vocational upper secondary education);
  • Strengthening of language, mathematical-logical and scientific skills, as well as of competences in music, art, law, economy and active citizenship;
  • Introduction of optional subjects in upper secondary schools which will be included in the ‘Curriculum dello studente’ (‘Student’s portfolio);
  • Compulsory in-service teacher training in accordance with the school three-year educational offer plan and the priorities set out by the Ministry (please see the article on the conditions of service of teaching staff);
  • Teachers’ merit valorisation through a bonus yearly assigned by school heads according to criteria established by the teachers evaluation committee set in each school. Criteria should refer to teaching quality, students’ achievements, project making and teaching methodology innovation (please see the article on the conditions of service of teaching staff);
  • Strengthening of the powers the school heads who select new teachers from specific regional registers, evaluate newly recruited teachers, decide on the bonus allocation to deserving teachers, decrease the number of pupils per class, if necessary, to improve teaching quality;
  • A new National plan for digital schools to develop and improve the digital competences of pupils/students and teachers (please see below National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability);
  • Creation of a single school data internet portal providing all data related to the education system (school budgets, register of school buildings, plan of the educational offer, Curriculum Vitae of teachers, etc.);
  • Invitation to tender for the building of innovative schools and additional funding for safety of school buildings.

The full law implementation needs to await subsequent regulations on single issues.

In addition, law 107 delegates the Government to issue one or more decrees to re-organise and simplify the dispositions in force on the following matters:

a. drawing up of a consolidated act of all dispositions on education
b. simplification and reorganisation the initial teacher education and recruitment procedures
c. promotion of school inclusion of students with special educational needs by revising the role of support teachers
d. revision of vocational education
e. re-organisation of the ECEC system by creating a 0-6 single ECEC system
f. definition of the essential benefit levels to guarantee the right to study

g. promotion of the classical culture, enhancement of the production of music, theatre, dance and movie
h. revision of Italian education institutional abroad
i. revision of regulations on students’ assessment, on the certification of competences and of State exams

The decrees should be issued within January 2017.