This page was last modified on 12 February 2016, at 10:16.

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

According to the Constitution, the Italian Republic is made up by the State, the Regions, the Provinces, the metropolitan areas and the Communes. Provinces have been reorganised in 2014. These are all autonomous authorities with powers and functions limited by the Constitution (art. 114).

The State

Italy is a Parliamentary Republic. The President of the Republic is the higher office of the State, elected every seven years by the Parliament in common session and by representatives of the Regions. The President represents the national unit and carries out a super partes role to guarantee the institutional balances. For this reasons, the President also has legislative functions (for example enacting the laws approved by the Parliament), executive functions (for example, appointing the President of the Council of Ministers) and judicial functions (for example, chairing the Magistrates' governing council).

The Parliament has the legislative power and  is made up of:

  • The Chamber of Deputies, elected by full-age citizens through direct universal suffrage. The Chamber is composed of 630 deputies, 12 of which are elected by Italians resident abroad. Persons aged 25 or over are eligible to be elected.
  • The Senate of the Republic, elected by people aged 25 or over through direct universal suffrage on a regional basis. The Senate is composed of 315 senators, six of which are elected by Italians resident abroad. Persons aged 40 or over are eligible for election. Former Presidents of the Republic and 5 citizens appointed for special merits by the President of the Republic are senators by right.

Both the Chamber and the Senate are in office for 5 years.

At present, a constitutional reform is completing the approval procedures. It foresees the replacement of the elective senate with a senate which members are representatives of regions and communes and different functions in the legislative process. It also foresees new procedures for the election of the President of the Republic.

The executive power is exercised by the Government, made up of the President of the Council of Ministers and the Council of Ministers composed of the single Ministers. In addition to the political function of direction, the Government carries out administrative activities designed to achieve the goals set by the State itself. Under exceptional conditions - by delegation from the Parliament or due to necessity or urgency - it exercises also legislative powers.

The Ministry of Education, University and Research (Ministero dell'istruzione, dell'università e della ricerca, MIUR) is responsible for all levels of education, from pre-primary to higher education, except for the three-year vocational training system which falls under the full competence of the Regions.

The MIUR collaborates with other Ministries: the Ministry of Economy and Finance (e.g., for the allocation and the distribution of funds needed for running of schools), Ministry of Labour and Social Policies (e.g., for a link between school, employment sector and vocational training), Ministry of Health (e.g., for health education), Ministry of Justice, (e.g. for education in correctional institutions), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (e.g. for the organisation of Italian schools abroad), Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and See (e.g., for environmental education projects), Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry (e.g., for food and environmental education), Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Activities (e.g., for the organization of non-school educational activities), Ministry of Infrastructures and Transports (e.g., for traffic education projects).

The Regions

Italy is subdivided into 20 Regions established as autonomous bodies with their own statutes, their own powers and functions, according to the principles set out by the Constitution (par. 114). Five Regions have a particularly high level of autonomy according to special statutes. 

The executive power is carried out by the Regional Board, which members are appointed by the President of the Board itself (also called President of the Region). This latter represents the Region and is elected according to the procedures established through regional laws. However, the Constitution foresees the election of the President through direct universal suffrage, if not differently established in Regional regulations.

The legislative power is carried out by the Regional council elected by voters resident in the territory of a Region. If the government establishes that a regional law exceeds the Region responsibility, it can raise a constitutional legitimacy issue in front of the Constitutional Court; the Region can follow the same procedure if it considers that a law of the State, or of another Region, is in conflict with its own sphere of responsibilities.

Article 117 distributes the legislative power between State and Regions as follows:

  • the State has exclusive legislative power over a specific series of subjects, including the definition of the general rules on education and of the basic provisions concerning civil and social rights to be guaranteed all over the national territory;
  • the Regions have exclusive legislative power on all subjects not expressly reserved to the State legislation by the Constitution, among which vocational education and training;
  • as for certain subjects, which are expressly listed, the Regions have concurrent legislative power; it means that they have law making power except for establishing fundamental principles reserved to the State legislation; education falls within the concurrent legislation, except for vocational education and training which falls exclusively under the Regions’ responsibility and except for school autonomy.

The ongoing constitutional reform foresees the re-distribution of responsibilities between the State and the Regions without the concurrent legislative power.

As for a general description of the powers of the Regions on education, please refer to the specific section.

Local Authorities

According to the Constitution, the Italian republic is made up of the State, the Regions, the Metropolitan areas, the Provinces and the Communes (art. 114).

As for a general description of the powers of local administrations on education, please refer to the specific section.

The commune

The commune is the lower-level local authority, with a direct contact to the population needs.

The mayor, the executive board and the municipal council administer the commune. The municipal council deliberates, in the respect of the national and regional laws, on all measures related to the organisation of the services falling under the municipal jurisdiction. Its members are elected by residents with full age through universal suffrage.

The executive power of the Commune is carried out by the executive board which members are directly appointed by the Mayor.

Communes have financial autonomy as for revenues, expenditure and their own assets.

The provinces

The province is an administrative authority between the commune and the region that groups together more communes that share the same historical, economic and territorial factors.

Provinces as representative institutions foreseen by the Constitution have been reformed in 2014: ten provinces have been transformed in metropolitan areas, while all the other provinces have been re-organised. Following the reform, the resident population will no more directly elect the governing bodies of the new local authorities. The mayor of the metropolitan area, the president of the new province and all collegiate bodies governing the new local authorities are appointed or elected by and among the members of the governing bodies of the communes making up the metropolitan area or the province.