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Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

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Overview Italy

Contents

Italy:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Italy:Historical Development

Italy:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Italy:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Italy:Political and Economic Situation

Italy:Organisation and Governance

Italy:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Italy:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Italy:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Italy:Organisation of Private Education

Italy:National Qualifications Framework

Italy:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Italy:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Italy:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Italy:Funding in Education

Italy:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Italy:Higher Education Funding

Italy:Adult Education and Training Funding

Italy:Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Italy:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:Primary Education

Italy:Organisation of Primary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Italy:Assessment in Primary Education

Italy:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Italy:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Italy:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Italy:Higher Education

Italy:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Italy:First Cycle Programmes

Italy:Bachelor

Italy:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Italy:Second Cycle Programmes

Italy:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Italy:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Italy:Adult Education and Training

Italy:Distribution of Responsibilities

Italy:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Italy:Main Providers

Italy:Main Types of Provision

Italy:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Italy:Teachers and Education Staff

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Italy:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Management and Other Education Staff

Italy:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Italy:Management Staff for Higher Education

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Italy:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Quality Assurance

Italy:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Italy:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Educational Support and Guidance

Italy:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Italy:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Italy:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Italy:Mobility and Internationalisation

Italy:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Mobility in Higher Education

Italy:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Italy:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Italy:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Italy:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Italy:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Italy:National Reforms in School Education

Italy:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Italy:National Reforms in Higher Education

Italy:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Italy:European Perspective

Italy:Legislation

Italy:Glossary

In general, national policies recently developed in the education field can be considered as part of the wider frame of lifelong learning (LLL). However, the implementation of EU lifelong learning strategies, which have the person in his/her learning activity as a reference, is transversal to the educational, labour and continuing professional development sectors.

Policy making involves different institutions, from the State to the Regions to the Local authorities. One of the most important steps towards decentralisation has been the reform of Title V of the Italian Constitution (law no. 3/2001) which has transferred to the Regions many of the competences of the State in the field of vocational training and adult education.

Afterwards, law no. 53/2003, which reformed the whole education system, introduced several important changes that can be considered as general LLL strategies. For example, law 53 established the right/duty (diritto/dovere) of all to education and training, either in the State education system or in the regional vocational training system, for 12 years or at least up to the acquisition of a three-year qualification within 18 years of age.

in 2007, the length of compulsory education has been extended to 10 years, including the first two years of upper secondary education. Dispositions on compulsory education also have established both key competences of citizenship, in analogy with the EU key competences, and competences and skills that students must have acquired at the end of compulsory education.

Moreover, starting from school year 2010/2011 the reform of the second cycle of education has involved both the general and the technical and vocational pathways. According to the reform, all types of upper secondary school last 5 years and can lead directly to university studies.

More recently, law no. 92/2012, which reformed the labour market, has provided a formal definition of lifelong learning: 'lifelong learning encompasses learning activity, whether formal, non-formal or informal, undertaken throughout life with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competence within a personal, civic, social and/or employment related perspective'.

According to the law, formal learning takes place in the education and training system as well as universities and High-level arts, dance and music education institutes. It leads to a qualification or a vocational three-year qualification or diploma, also through an apprenticeship, or a recognised certification.

Non-formal learning corresponds to an intentional choice of the learner carried out outside the formal system, in organisations with educational and training aims, in voluntary settings, national civil service or private social services as well as in enterprises.

Informal learning not necessarily corresponds to an intentional choice of the learner, but to activities and interactions in everyday life situations, at work, at home and in the leisure time.

Following law 92/2012, the Legislative Decree no. 13/2013, has laid down the general dispositions on the national system of certification of competences. The aim of these dispositions is to make arise and develop professional competences non-formally and informally acquired, and to promote professional and geographical mobility, to facilitate the contact between labour supply and demand, to increase the transparency of learning and the recognition of certifications at national and European level.

Regional vocational education and training courses, both at secondary (IFP) and at post-secondary level, lead to qualifications and competences spendable in the labour market. In this view, they can be considered, as the other education and training pathways available in the Italian education system, as means to realize the LLL strategies. Moreover, the recent recognition of regional IFP courses as means to fulfil compulsory education goes in the same direction.

As for higher education, measures have been taken to encourage the participation of non-representative groups of students and for the recognition of prior learning. First of all, the possibility to apply for part-time courses has been introduced; it implies a reduction in the annual study load – equal to 60 university credits – and an extension of the duration of the course of study. Moreover, the accreditation of online universities facilitates the access to university studies for disadvantaged groups of students, such as working students, disable students, adults, etc. In the same way, traditional universities can to offer partially or totally online programmes of study.

Adults aged more than 25 and without an upper secondary education certification, are admitted to the upper secondary education final exam without attending school courses.

Finally, universities can also start continuing professional development courses, focusing on scientific in-depth studies in specific areas. Courses usually last a few months corresponding to a workload of less than one year (less than 60 credits). At the end of courses, universities issue an attendance certificate or a diploma which denomination can vary. Higher education institutes can establish their own criteria for the recognition of prior learning within the limits (a maximum of 12 credits) specified for each course of study.

As for the adult education sector, in February 2013, the Presidential Decree no. 263/2012 containing ‘General dispositions for the re-definition of the didactic and organisational asset of the Adult education centres’ has come into force. According to the new regulation, former Permanent territorial centres (CTPs) and ‘evening courses’ will merge into the Provincial Adult education Centres (Centri provinciali per l’istruzione degli adulti – CPIA). The Centres will provide an educative offer organised in levels of learning aimed at the obtainment of the qualifications released within the mainstream education system, as well as at the acquisition of basic competences for foreigners.

In school year 2013-2014, the reform has been applied on experimental basis in 9 Regions. From school year 2014/2015, the new Centres (CPIA) will be available nationwide.