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Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

The network higher education institutions is quite extensive in proportion to the country’s surface, population and the number of students enrolled in higher education, but, compared to other countries, it is of medium size.

Higher education institutions can be categorised in the following two ways.


On the one hand, there is a clear distinction between state and non-state institutions. Non-state institutions can be founded by churches, business organizations or foundations. The foundation and operation of non-state institutions is subject to the same input (quality) criteria as the foundation and operation of state institutions and compliance is checked in the course of accreditation at the time of foundation. Institutions meeting the criteria are granted state recognition by the Parliament. State and non-state institutions recognised by the state are listed in Annex I. of the Higher Education Act. Only organisations included in the list can provide higher education. Establishment and operation of non-state higher education institutions are regulated by the Higher Education Act and related regulations. Non-state institutions also receive state funding, based on an agreement with the government. However, the budget of both state institutions and non-state institution is only partly financed by the state. The state grant provided for institutions maintained by the Roman Catholic Church is governed by a concordat concluded between Hungary and the Vatican and the Hungarian government has concluded similar agreements with other historical churches (the Protestant Church and Israelite Church) for ensuring funding their higher education institutions.

On the other hand, as regards their academic profile, there are colleges (non-university higher education institutions), university of applied sciences and universities. The main difference lies in capacities. Universities are higher education institutions authorised to provide at least eight Bachelor and six Master programmes and offer doctoral programmes and award doctoral degree, provided that at least sixty percent of their teaching and research staff employed directly or on a public service employment basis have a doctoral degree, operates students' academic workshops and is able to provide studies in foreign languages in some of its programmes. Universities are authorised to offer programmes in every educational cycle

University of applied sciences is a tertiary institutions with at least four Bachelors programmes and two Masters programmes, and at least two dual trainings (if its accreditation includes engineering, IT, agriculture, nature science or business studies), having at least 45% of their teaching and research staff employed directly or on a public service employment basis have a doctoral degree, operates an academic student workshop, and is capable of offering foreign language courses at some of its departments. The large former colleges have recently been transformed into universities of applied sciences. Colleges are tertiary institutions having at least one-third of their teaching and research staff employed directly or on a public service employment basis have a doctoral degree. Colleges are entitled to operate students' academic workshops. No differentiation is made by law, but colleges and universities of applied sciences are usually more active in practical education due to historical reasons. Their portfolio mainly offers first cycle programmes and shorter programmes and applied research. By contrast, universities usually offer more theoretically oriented degree courses; they have more Master programmes than colleges and are especially active in basic research. State universities are large organisations with several faculties, while colleges are rather smaller institutions, with a few exceptions. Non-state institutions are usually smaller than state institutions (in terms of the number of faculties and students) and the majority of them are colleges. According to the database of the Education Authority there have been 25 state funded universities (including universities of applied sciences), 9 non-state maintained universities, 3 state maintained colleges and 28 non-state funded colleges (out of which 21 are operated by a church)  operating in Hungary.

In line with the legal framework, universities, universities of applied sciences and colleges may obtain various classifications:

In order to implement national strategic objectives, the minister responsible for tertiary education is authorised to classify a higher education institution maintained by the state as a priority higher education institution. Universities or university faculties offering outstanding courses and academically acknowledged may be awarded a “research” rank. Colleges offering programmes in several fields of study and internationally acknowledged in the field of applied research may be awarded the rank of “college of applied research”. Based on the agreement, the Minister may award funding to operate the organisations and organisational units. The classification requirements are set out in Government decrees.

Foreign higher education institutions may also operate in Hungary. In Hungary, foreign higher education institutions may offer study programmes resulting in a degree if their state-recognition granted in their home country is recognised and the operation is approved by the Hungarian Educational Authority. The Educational Authority recognises the foreign decision, if the principles of the higher education system of the respective state are in line with the educational fundamental principles of the European Higher Education Area. At present there are 28 such institutions; and according to the database of the Educational Authority the countries of origin include: USA, Germany, Austria, France, UK, Spain, Czech Republic, Poland, China, Malaysia, Thailand and South-Africa.