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Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Steering documents and types of activities

•             Ministerial Decree 17/2013 (III. 1.) (Minister of Human Capacities) on issuing the directive on kindergarten education for national minorities

•             Government Decree 363/2012 (XII. 17.) on the Core Programme of Kindergarten Education

•             Ministerial Decree 32/2012 (X. 8.) (Minister of Human Capacities) on issuing the directive on kindergarten education of children with special educational needs

•             Ministerial Decree 20/2012 on the operation of public education institutions

•             Government Decree 229/2012 on the implementation of the Public Education Act

•             Act CXC of 2011 on Public Education

The National Public Education Act defines the responsibilities, competence and operating conditions (personnel requirements, employment requirements and requirements related to material facilities) of kindergartens, and gives authorisation for a professional regulatory framework. Furthermore, the operation of kindergartens is affected by the Budgetary Act in force.

The general professional, legal and quality-related frameworks for kindergartens are defined at the governmental and ministerial levels. The National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education defines the content of the kindergarten education (Government Decree 363/2012 (XII. 17.)) (The minister responsible for education, in cooperation with a committee set up by him or her, evaluates the National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education on a regular basis, but at least in every five years, and proposes necessary modifications.) The National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education applies to each kindergarten regardless of the maintainer. It is a core curriculum providing a general framework for the general pedagogic principles and objectives of kindergarten education and care.  The staff of kindergartens is responsible for developing the local educational programme (i.e. local curriculum) of the kindergarten in line with the National Core Programme.

Ministerial decrees provide for the directive on kindergarten education for national minorities (Ministerial Decree 17/2013 (III. 1.)) and for the directive on kindergarten education for children with special educational needs (Ministerial Decree 32/2012 (X. 8.)).

The implementing regulation of the National Public Education Act (20/2012. (VIII. 31.)) sets out that kindergartens also have child protection duties, the educational programme of the kindergarten has to provide assistance in reducing or eliminating any threats to the development of children.

An increasing number of kindergartens undertake to provide education and care for the children of foreign citizens. Act I of 2007 on the entry and stay of persons having the right of free movement and stay amended the Public Education Act. The amendment harmonizes the provisions defining the persons having the right to make use of the services of public education on the territory of the Republic of Hungary and related conditions with the Directives of the European Union.

The Public Education Act specifies that a minor who is not a citizen of Hungary becomes entitled for kindergarten care and may use kindergarten services under conditions that are similar to those applying to Hungarian citizens, if 

o             as per the provisions of Asylum Acts, he or she is entitled to rights identical to those held by Hungarian citizens,

o             he or she is a person with the right of free movement and residence (a citizen of an EU member state), and exercises his or her legal rights of entering into and residing in Hungary as per the act on entry and residence,  

o             he or she falls under the scope of the act on the entry and residence of third-country nationals, and his or her legal status is “immigrant” or “established”,

o             he or she is a holder of a permit that permits him or her to stay in Hungary.

Teaching Methods and Materials

In kindergartens, the content of educational work is defined by local educational plans which are compiled on the basis of the system of objectives and tasks specified in the National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education. The institutions, in their local educational plans, regulate their methodological principles of the education and development of children, along with the rules on and the timeframe for recording educational work. Kindergarten teachers – within the framework and in consideration of relevant regulations – are free to choose the material and methods to be used for the given educational content.

The unique characteristics of Hungarian kindergarten education is that playing is considered to be the most important tool of kindergarten education, which is the most effective for the development of children. (As reflected by, among others, the National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education.) The significance of playing has to be reflected in the daily timetable and schedule of the kindergarten. Kindergarten education is mainly based on the following activities:

○ Poems, stories

○ Singing, music, singing and playing

○ Drawing, modelling, craft

○ Physical exercise

○ Learning actively about the external world