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Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Curriculum, subjects and number of hours

The documents centrally regulating the contents of the vocational training are issued by the ministries in charge of the given vocational qualifications. There are two important regulatory tools: the vocational and examination requirements and the central programmes (curricula) of the vocational qualifications and the related requirement modules, which have been worked out and issued by ministerial decrees for every single basic qualification contained in the National Qualifications Register (NRQ), i.e. the register of the vocational qualifications recognised by the state. These are mandatory requirements but they leave some manoeuvring room for the institutions in the elaboration of their local curricula, thus it is possible to adapt the curricula to the local pedagogical concepts and the requirements of the local labour market. In 2013, the curriculum for vocational secondary schools was developed in such a way that 50% of the postsecondary vocational training is offered in grades 9-12, and the other 50% in grade 13. That is the reason why for students graduating from a general secondary school or another vocational secondary school focusing on a different sector the duration of postsecondary education is 2 years, (in grades 13 and 14).

The vocational and examination requirements of the basic trades on post-secondary level specify the input competences required for the starting of vocational training, the necessary previous schooling attainment, the percentage shares of theoretical and practical training, the related trades/vocations (the so-called partial qualifications, the vocational qualifications built upon other qualifications containing modules shared with the basic vocation - their number is around 1000 and is changing continuously), a brief description of the work area of the vocational qualification, the trade/vocational requirement modules, the necessary technical/professional knowledge and skills required for each module, the personal, social and methodology competences to be developed in the course of training, and they contain the lists of aids and equipment required for training, as well as detailed descriptions of the examination requirements. The vocational training curriculum is worked out on the basis of the vocational and examination requirements, which is to be used on a mandatory basis, but which may be adapted to some extent flexibly, in the local curriculum, to the local conditions.

Content developments have been worked out since the 1990s with the involvement of experts delegated by the participants of the economy, usually coordinated by the background institution of the ministry in charge of vocational training. In recent years the development of these documents has been assigned, in a high - and increasing - proportion of vocations trained in the vocational schools, to the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. All content documents can be downloaded from the homepage of the ministry’s background institution in charge of vocational training.


Local curriculum

Professional work is carried out in the education institutions in accordance with the applicable pedagogical programmes which must be made publicly available. The pedagogical programme includes the education programme comprising personality and social skills development programme and the local curriculum which is the school’s level of content regulation. This latter determines the subjects taught in the various grades of the school concerned, their subject matter, requirements and class numbers as well as the principles governing the choice of the textbooks and other teaching aids that can be used. The requirements of entering the next grades as well as the forms of the evaluation and rating/grading of the students are also regulated by the local curriculum.

The local curricula of vocational training have to be strictly adjusted to the professional and examination requirements and the framework curriculum. Schools may devote an increased number of classes to the compulsory subjects at the expense of the subjects that can be freely scheduled or those that are not compulsory or they may introduce completely new subjects as well.


Teaching methods and materials

In regard to the methods applied in the teaching and learning process, schools as well as teachers enjoy a high degree of freedom where the range of applicable procedures is not determined by any kind of central document.

In the vast majority of schools teaching takes place in the framework of 45-minute classes organised by subject but practical training consists of 60-minute classes. The subject matter is organised for the most part in subjects. In the methodology of post-secondary training both the (upper) secondary and the tertiary methods can be found, but the former ones are more present.

In post-secondary education the application of info-communication techniques in classes can be regarded as general, although its frequency varies.

Teaching aids, textbooks

In the case of each vocational qualification, the list of professional and examination requirements issued in a decree by the minister responsible for the vocational qualification contains the minimum number of teachings aids required to be used during the practical training.

In post-secondary education not every subject has a textbook. Many trades are learnt by fewer than a hundred students per grade, but popular trades are learnt simultaneously by only a couple hundred students as well. Preparing a new textbook for each subject whenever the material is altered would not be economical. Of course, textbooks exist for subjects adjusted to many vocational training programmes. Besides these, notes prepared by class teachers of the vocational school are circulated among the students or – more often – sent via computer. Besides textbooks, so-called unconventional content carriers – particularly those based on the digital technology – are playing an increasingly important role.  

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