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Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Traditionally, the education of teachers was adjusted to the structure of public education and was the mirror image thereof, and had a dual (concurrent) structure, provided as undivided degree courses in different higher education institutions (universities and colleges). Kindergarten teachers, primary school and lower secondary school teachers received their initial education at specialised colleges (non-university higher education institutions), while upper secondary school teachers graduated from universities. In teachers’ training, the first cycle provided courses in various disciplines (to form a basis for subject-based teaching qualifications), while the second cycle provided a degree in teaching.

In 2004, Hungary made a decision to introduce a multi-cycle training system, in line with the Bologna process. In the multicycle training system launched in September 2006, the first cycle, the bachelor program which focuses on the former specialised college training was raised from former college training, to kindergarten teachers’, primary school teachers’ and special educational pedagogues’ training level, and teacher training (in preparation for both the primary school and secondary school level) was raised to the master training level. The Bologna reforms created the following structure: The first cycle provides degree courses in various disciplines (to form a basis for subject-based teaching qualifications), while the Master’s degree in teaching is acquired in the second cycle that also includes traineeship. As a result, the teachers’ training became more standardised, and the 110 various types of training programme were replaced by a single teacher training Master’s degree that is divided into various groups according to subjects.

The Higher Education Act, which entered into force in 2011, differentiates between the studies of future lower secondary and upper secondary school teachers, e.g. in terms of the length of studies. As a result of the restructuring, the initial education of lower secondary school teachers is provided as undivided long-cycle programmes (10 semesters), which is supplemented by a 2-semester traineeship. The initial education of upper secondary school teachers is also offered as undivided long programmes, lasting 12 semesters, with a compulsory traineeship of two semesters. In the second phase, degrees are provided both as divided and undivided programmes. The studies of both types of teachers end in a Master’s degree. In teacher training for general subjects and in specialized teacher training in certain arts, teachers are required to obtain two special qualifications. Teachers’ special trainings in vocational teacher training offer a preparation for teaching several special subjects. Teacher training in its undivided form commenced in the 2013/14 academic year and will be held, based on an outgoing scheme, parallel with the Bologna “consecutive” training until September 2017. Starting from the 2017/18 academic year it will only be available in the form of undivided training.

Teachers to be entering higher education also have to sit for an aptitude test.

Conditions of service

Most teachers are employed as public servants and their status is regulated by the Act on Public Servants and Pabic Education. Public servants are paid according to a central wage matrix. The amended law stipulates a period of traineeship before appointment to a permanent public servant status.

A career model was developed for teachers in 2013: built on teacher training, it defined a compulsory traineeship period, then Teacher 1 and Teacher 2 periods, optionally followed by Master Teacher and Research Teacher grades. The precondition to being advanced to the next career grade is the qualification of the teacher’s professional work, through a portfolio.


Continuing professional development (CPD) for teachers

In the late 90s a free market of in-service training for teachers developed, where the training supply met demand from schools. The most significant change in the field of CPD was brought about by the amendment of the Public Education Act in 1996, which introduced obligatory participation in in-service training (120-hour courses) for teachers every 7 years. Participation in in-service trainings for teachers can be implemented in several ways, whereas non-fulfilment might imply sanctions.