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Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Definition of the target groups

The Act on General Education  defines the following groups of children and pupils needing special support within the category of children and students requiring special attention:

  • children, pupils with special education needs,
  • children, pupils social, learning and behavioural difficulties and
  • children, pupils with outstanding talent.

Children/pupils with special educational needs: children/pupils in need of special support who fall into one of the following eight categories on the basis of expert opinion:

  • children/pupils with a physical disability
  • children/pupils with (visual, auditory) sensory impairment
  • children/pupils with mental impairment
  • children/pupils with speech impairment
  • children/pupils with multiple impairment
  • children/pupils with autism spectrum disorder
  • children/pupils with other psychological developmental disorders
  • children/pupils with behavioural regulation disorder

Children/pupils with social, learning and behavioural difficulties

Children/pupils with social, learning and behavioural difficulties are children and pupils needing special support who, based on the expert opinion of the expert committee significantly underperform compared to their age, or have social relationship problems or learning and/or behaviour regulation deficiencies, or their integration into the community or personal development is impeded or shows irregularities but do not qualify as students with special education needs.

Exceptionally gifted children/pupils

According to the present legal regulation exceptionally gifted children, pupils are children/pupils needing special support, who are highly creative and possess above-average general or special abilities, strong motivation and task commitment.

After conducting the required examinations, based on the examination results, the expert committee makes a proposal for the provision within the frame of special support, for the method, form and place of provision and thus for the option of inclusive or separated education. 

Specific support measures

Provision for pupils with special educational needs within mainstream education together with pupils not needing special education may contribute to their successful education and integration in their communities. Mainstream schools also teaching SEN pupils have to ensure that SEN pupils are fully integrated and are able to make progress together with other pupils. The Guideline for the kindergarten and school education of children and pupils with special educational needs supports inclusive education in mainstream schools and at the same time provides a framework and tasks for schools to develop their local curricula and practice. It also defines the amendments that may be made to the content of subjects to suit the needs of the various groups of SEN pupils, which should be observed by mainstream institutions as well..

 

Laws allow the preparation of an individual development plan for SEN pupils if required, and based on this the possibility of individual progress.

 

General education institutions providing inclusive education can use the special and pedagogical services of Integrated Special Education Methodology Insitutions (ISEMI), as well as the help of institutions assigned for operating the network of mobile special educational professionals and mobile conductors.  An ISEMI can be established for helping the inclusive education of children, pupils needing special education together with other children, pupils. The ISEMI, fitting to its ams, may also perform some of the tasks of the pedagogical assistance services in addition to the expert committee’s tasks. Furthermore, it can perform the tasks of the family support service and school health care, as well as within the frame of the institution an institutional unit performing kindergarten, primary school or secondary school tasks has to be operated. for the tasks performed within the ISEMI, individual institutional units that are independent from organisation and professional aspects have to be established.

 

The act on general education serves the provision for children, pupils with special educational needs by means of providing extra services and regulations allowing preferential treatment for SEN pupils:

  • The organisational frame of development, as well as the applied special methods and tools in the kindergarten and school education of SEN children, pupils together with the others in an inclusive manner are always determined by the individual needs of SEN children. SEN children, pupils are entitled to receive a pedagogical, special educational and conductive pedagogical provision according to their states within the frame of the special support. Provision according to the special support has to be given in compliance with the expert opinion of the expert committee.    
  • The school educating SEN pupils may allow a period of more than one academic year  for meeting the curriculum requirements of a school year. 
  • When calculating the average headcount of classes, groups, , SEN children/pupils are taken into account as two or three children, depending on the type of disability, i.e. the separated classes organised for them can have a maximum headcount of 7-15 pupils, whereas in the case of inclusive education the obligatory use of the above multiplier ensures the relatively lower number of pupils in the class.
  • The institutions participating in the education of SEN children, independent of whether education is provided separated from or together with pupils without any impairment have to provide obligatory health and pedagogical rehabilitation activities for pupils in addition to the obligatory number of classes determined for all schools, whereas in the case of severe and permanent disorder of the cognitive functions or the development of behaviour that cannot be traced back to any organic cause, developmental classes have to be organised. Depending on the type of impairment, the number of classes for rehabilitation purposes is 10-50% of the number of obligatory classes, whereas the timeframe of developmental classes is 15% of the obligatory classes. Timeframe can be regrouped in the different grades and classes during the academic year, among the weeks.
  • In accordance with the expert opinion of the SEN diagnosis and rehabilitation committee, school heads may exempt SEN pupils from assessment in some subjects or subject parts. In the secondary school leaving examination pupils may choose another subject instead of the concerned subjects as specified by the examination rules.  
  • At exams, SEN pupils are provided longer preparation time, and all the tools they needed during learning (e.g. computers, type writers) and may take an oral exam in writing or a written exam orally if needed.
  • SEN pupils may be allowed to learn in a form of education that provides advancement fitting to the individual features and development of SEN pupils, and individual progess.

The General Education Act also involves children, pupils coping with social, learning and behavioural difficulties in the group of those entitled to receive special care, and these children are entitled to participate in developmental classes. Developmental classes can be implemented within the frame of parenting advice, kindergarten education, school education, and dormitory education.

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Care and support for exceptionally gifted children, pupils

This belongs to the scope of activity of pedagogical assistance services. Pedagogical assistance services perform the following tasks in this respect: early identification of exceptionally gifted children/pupils, during which their personality development is supported, with the appearance of talent according to their age taken into account, and if needed, they receive further help, and participate in self-awareness groups organised for them.  The above activity does not only aim at the children as it also means counselling, support for the parents, consultation for the teachers, organising common talent counselling forums, as well as giving recommendations for participating in special talent programmes. Psychologists responsible for the identification and development of gifted children/pupils cooperate with the coordinators of local talent programmes as well as kindergarten and school psychologists.

 

Schools and dormitories operate talent programmes and extracullicular activities for talented pupils. Study and art competitions mean an old tradition in the Hungarian general education system.