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Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

The General Profile of Basic Education

In Hungary, the 8-grade single-structure basic school comprises the institution of basic (primary and lower secondary) education. In these schools basic education is performed according to uniform requirements. This type of school is designed to ensure that students can prepare, in compliance with their abilities, interest and faculties, for further education at the institutions of secondary schooling.

In Hungary, all children must take part in institutional education and complete compulsory education. Compulsory education starts in the calendar year when the child turns 6 until 31 August, but not more than one year later, and ends when the student turns 16. Children staying in kindergarten for another year at the recommendation of the expert committee become school-age students when that year has lapsed. Children begin to fulfil their obligation to compulsory education on the first day of the school year. If a child reaches the stage of development necessary to pass to school earlier, the government office (on expert opinion) may, at the parent’s request, allow the child to go to school before turning 6.

The basic education phase consists of two stages: the primary phase (grades 1 to 4) and the lower secondary phase (grades 5 to 8).

The educational institution is accountable for the arrangement of child and student protection, the creation of healthy and safe conditions for education and teaching, and the arrangement of regular medical examination of children and students, in particular the medical examination comprising of dentistry, ophthalmology and general examination of children attending kindergarten, and, until the end of compulsory education, students of basic and upper secondary school at least once every year.

Hungary’s public education system is characterised by the fact that, for students with special educational needs, compulsory education can be completed in mainstream basic schools in integrated education or in special schools specialising in children with special educational needs. The institutional network of special schools functions in parallel with that of “mainstream” schooling. For more information, see Chapter 12.

Legal Framework

Based on the Fundamental Law of Hungary (formerly constitution), the principle of shared responsibility applies in public education-related legislation. The Fundamental Law declares that all Hungarian citizens have the right to education, and the state guarantees this right to all of its citizens by providing free and compulsory basic education, [...] and by providing statutory financial support to beneficiaries of education, and the freedom of learning for the acquisition of the highest possible level of knowledge, and the freedom of teaching within the framework determined by law.

Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education serves as the principal law of public education in Hungary, covering the most important fields of operation of the public education system. The Act regulates how and under what conditions children, all being obliged to participate in education, can start basic schooling and sets the characteristics of the institutional system of public education, the rights and obligations of those participating in education, the possibilities of and restrictions on state and operator’s governance, and it also provides for the issues of financing.

Acts are followed by government decrees in the legal hierarchy. A part of them regulates the implementation of the Public Education Act, such as Government Decree No 229/2012 (VIII.28.) on the Implementation of Act on National Public Education or Government Decree No 110/2012 (VI.4.) on the Issuing, Introduction and Implementation of the National Core Curriculum, the main legal instrument to regulate the content of public education. Ministerial decrees provide a legal framework, important in view of both the governance and content of education, for the everyday functioning of educational institutions. The Decree on the framework curriculum is a key instrument to regulate the content of school work, while detailed operation is regulated in Decree No 20/2012 (VIII.31.) EMMI on the Operation of Educational Institutions and Use of Names of Public Education Institutions. The financial implications on the operation of schools are included in the current Budget Act. At the bottom of the regulatory hierarchy of public education, local decrees and regulations of the municipalities operating educational institutions constitute the local level, while strategic and operative regulatory documents (pedagogical programmes, organisational and operational rules, institutional quality management programmes) issued by schools form the institutional level.