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Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Definition of the target Group(s)

The expert opinion of the expert committee examining the children, pupils includes the statement whether the SEN child, pupil should learn in an educational institution, class, group, course established for this purpose according to the type of impairment, or the child, pupil can also participate in kindergarten education, school education, dormitory education together with other children, as well as it also includes the statement whether the SEN pupil can meet its study obligations only by going to school or only as a private pupil.

For the SEN children, pupils, whose education can be implemented more successfully in this form, institutional provision is ensured for them by the following institutions:

Special education, conductive education institution, which is an education institution only providing for SEN children, pupils and can be used based on expert committee’s opinion.

Skills development school, which provides preparation for starting an independent life, as well as the acquisition of work processes needing simple training and allowing employment for pupils with medium severe intellectual disability, as well as it provides the knowledge needed for employment and starting an independent life for pupils with slight intellectual disability, being unable to participate in VET.   

Admission requirements and choice of school

Physical, sensory, intellectual and speech disabilities are ascertained by national and county level expert committees. The expert and rehabilitation committee examining sight, hearing and speech operate at national level while those examining learning ability operate in Budapest and in each county. The head of the committee is a special teacher with professional skills corresponding to the type of disability and its members are psychologists and specialists. They draw up an expert opinion on the children examined based on which they make a proposal for the institution providing kindergarten education or school education, as well as for the specific requirements for education and teaching of the child or student.

The expert committees may make a proposal not only for admission of children in special classes but also for their transferring from special classes into the classes of the integrating majority school. The parents of students with special education needs have the right to intervene in the choice of institution in which their children would be educated.

Physical, sensory, intellectual and speech disabilities may only be established by expert and rehabilitation committees examining only learning abilities and by national committees engaged in expert and rehabilitation activities based on a complex – medical, teaching, special teaching and psychological – examination. The detailed rules of procedure are laid down in the Ministerial Decree.

Examination is started at the request and with the agreement  of the parents, whose presence is required for conducting the examinarion except for the case when they stay in an unknown place. The committees established for diagnosing physical, sensory (visual and hearing) and speech impairment operate at national level and expert and rehabilitation committees examining learning abilities operate in each county and in Budapest (to establish or exclude diagnoses classified as the collective category of intellectual disability and “permanent and severe disability of the education and learning process due to disorders of psychic development”).

Based on the screening and examination of the disability, a proposal is drawn up for the child’s or student’s care in the framework of special education as well as for the way, form and place of care and for the pedagogical assistance service related to the care.

The proposal for the type of education to be provided is made on the basis of the criteria underlying the classification of the individual types of disabilities.

The committee’s expert opinion has to:

  • establish or exclude disability and the substantiating facts;
  • establish that a child may participate in kindergarten and school education only in the education institution established for this purpose and suitable for his/her type of disability or he/she may also do so together with other children and students in integrated form.
  • establish, as the case may be, that he/she may attend compulsory education only as a private student;
  • establish, as the case may be, that compulsory education may be performed in the form of developmental education;
  • include the specific requirements for education of the child;
  • make a proposal for the institution to provide education.

The institution is chosen by the parents from those complying with the conditions for education of the child or student concerned. If a child is with special education needs, the parents’ freedom of choice of institution is restricted to the choice between kindergartens and schools providing the appropriate conditions for the education of the child, on which institutions information is given by the committee after conducting the examination.

Parents’ co-operation is not only a right but also an obligation. The provisions of the Constitution stipulate that the parents have the right to choose the form of education to be given to their children but at the same time they are obliged to ensure the upbringing of their children, including educating them.

Provision of the child, pupil according to the expert opinion may be ensured if in the case of an underage pupil the parent, or in the case of a full age pupil the pupil agrees with the content of the expert opinion. If the parent or pupil does not agree with the content of the expert opinion, the expert committee shall inform the district office thereon, which will initiate the revision of the expert opinion.

The parent, or in the case of a full age pupil, the pupil may directly initiate the revision of the expert opinion as well.

 

At the same time, development of a child may not depend on the parents’ will or approval exclusively, therefore the notary of the place of residence may order the parents – in the framework of public administration procedure – to appear at the expert examination with their child and then to enrol him/her in the appropriate education institution. The parents’ attention shall be called to the possibility and obligation of initiating a public administration procedure, as well as they shall be informed on the methods and forms of legal remedy.  

A public administration procedure may be initiated, in the interest of the child or student, by:

  • the general education institution or the family protection institution if the parents do not accept the necessity of the examination;
  • the expert and rehabilitation committee if the parents fails to appear at or to co-operate at the examination and/or the parents do not agree with the findings of the expert opinion or its forwarding;
  • the head of the designated education institution if the child is not enrolled or taken to the institution.

The notary whose field of activity is in the child’s, pupil’s, or parents’ place of residence shall be competent to make the dominant decision in the case. Parents may file an appeal, in which case the regionally competent government office will make a decision on the case. The decision made within the frame of the public administration procedure shall call the attention to the fact in every case that an appeal may be filed against it. If the parent enforces this right, it imposes a legal delay on the execution of the decision. This means that the decision of second instance on the place of education shall be made on the regionally competent government office; if the decision of the government office is not accepted, legal remedy may be requested through the court.    

The children and students who are not able to attend compulsory education at their place of residence participate in school education either by daily commuting – which is assisted by school buses only at some locations, so usually they have to use public transport – or by weekly accommodation in student hostels (from Monday to Friday). The family receives an aid for travelling in both cases.

Institutions available for mentally disabled children operate in the counties and those for children with physical or sensory disabilities operate in larger territorial units, i.e. in individual regions but, for example, those for blind, partially sighted or physically handicapped students operate at two or three places in the country.

 

Age groups and grouping of children and students

The provision of children, students with special education needs  starts from the day their disability was identified. From the age of 0 to 3 (or maximum 5) they participate in early intervention, from the age of 3 they attend kindergarten education and from the age of 6 or 7 they attend basic school education. The pedagogical conditions of education and development to be provided on a compulsory basis are summarized by the law. The generally compulsory conditions can be amended in several fields by the general education act, adapted to the needs of SEN children, or it can be supplemented by extra services that shall be established and made available for them. The law also enables children with severe or multiple disabilities to participate in compulsory education.

 

Early intervention

The task of early intervention and care is to provide complex intervention and prevention in early childhood from the time when eligibility for provision was stated. The expert committee makes a proposal for starting early intervention and care. If the child is over 3, the child may participate in early intervention and care if not allowed to join kindergarten education based on the expert opinion of the expert committee. Early intervention and care may be implemented in individual sessions or in group sessions with maximum six children.  The task can be carried out in various forms: home-based provision, care in crèche, special needs counselling, early intervention and care centre etc.

Developmental education, developmental education-teaching

Developmental education is a complex special education implemented based on the individual education plan of the child, whose task is to prepare the child for developmental education-teaching, by involving the parent and providing consultation for them.

 

 

Developmental education is an integrated process organised not by grades but in accordance with developmental phases of students. It is based on the individual development plans determining the personalised development, education and rehabilitation programme. Similarly to mainstream education, it follows the schedule of the school year.

 

Kindergarten education and school education

 

SEN children may join kindergarten education from the age of three as well in a special education or conductive education institution or in a kindergarten group established according to the type of disability. These children may continue their primary and secondary school studies in special education or conductive education institutions, or in a school group established according to the type of their disabilities.

 

The rule that when calculating the average headcount of a group or class, SEN children shall be taken into account as two or three children, depending on the disability providing the basis for special education needs shall be applied in all fields of kindergarten and school education.

 

A special education, conductive education institution is an education institution only providing for SEN children, pupils and can be used based on expert committee’s opinion.

A skills development school provides preparation for starting an independent life, as well as the acquisition of work processes needing simple training and allowing employment for pupils with medium severe intellectual disability, as well as it provides the knowledge needed for employment and starting an independent life for pupils with slight intellectual disability, being unable to participate in VET. Skills development schools have four grades.

 

If the SEN child has severe and multiple disabilities, the SEN child participates in developmental education from the year when he/she becomes 5 years old, and the SEN child participates in developmental education-teaching when he/she reaches the age of compulsory education. Developmental education-teaching are provided by the special education, conductive education, or education institution, in individual or group form.

 Curriculum and subjects

The General Education Act defines the National Basic Programme of Kindergarten Education and the National Core Curriculum as the the basic document of regulating the contents of school education. When they elaborate their local education and teaching programmes, kindergartens and schools apply the above basic documents in accordance with their local features and taking the provisions of the Guideline for the kindergarten education of students with special education needs, and the Guideline for the school education of students with special education needs (http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=154929.229239) (the Guideline) into account. The educational aims, key competences, educational and developmental aims  outlined in the National Core Curriculum are valid for the pupils with special education needs as well.

 

Based on the National Core Curriculum and the Guideline, the ministry responsible for education arranges for the preparation of the frame curricula that can be used and adapted at schools, and which shall be available for schools free and in an organised manner.

Schools take the differences between students into account when they draw up their local teaching programmes. Disability is such a form of differences between children which necessitates higher differentiation than that applied usually to contents and procedures, use of special procedures and supplementary teaching services. The objectives, tasks, contents, activities and requirements relating to development (of the disability) need to be integrated in the teaching programme and quality management programme of the institution, in the local curriculum, in the learning-teaching programme related to the thematic units and plans, and in the individual development plan.

 

Institutions providing for pupils with special education needs, while preparing their teaching programmes, take the Guideline into account, which based on the type of disability determines in detail:

 

- the option of modifying, eliminating or simplifying certain fields, or involving new fields when designating the contents;

- the fields of correcting damagwe skills for rehabilitation, habilitation purposes;

- the proposals for extending education, teaching and development in time to a degree that is over average;

- the proposals also point out at the specific conditions and tools of developing digital competence.

The ministerial decree (20/2012 EMMI Decree of the Ministry of Human Resources) to regulate the operation of educational institutions providing the education of SEN pupils allows   the above institutions to determine in their local teaching programmes longer time than one school year for learning the content of one grade. The considerable majority of the institutions make use of this opportunity, usually in the first grade. In this case the mid-year school report and the end-of-year certificate are issued at the half and at the end of the increased teaching period, respectively.

Teaching methods and materials

. Irrespective of whether education and teaching are carried out in a special education institution or integrated, the Guideline should be taken into account when the teaching programme and local curriculum of the school are prepared. The document is aimed at enforcement of the rights of  children and students with special education needs for special care. The Guideline determines the main development fields intended for reducing and compensating the disadvantages resulting from disability, the basic principles, objectives and key tasks of development, as well as the tasks and forms of activities assisting teaching and health rehabilitation for all types of  disability.

The Individual schools and other special education institutions may decide of their own the methods they consider the most adequate and the procedures they use in the process of education. Such methods differ according to individual disabilities but in each case they obey the content requirements laid down in the National Core Curriculum. In the course of their application, school education is characterised by the subject-based approach. The Guideline defines the necessary modification of or supplement to the individual contents rather than including the contents specific to the impairment in separate subjects.

In each institutions  teaching students with special education needs participating special education, independent of whether education is implemented in a special education institution or in an integrated manner, mandatory habitation and rehabilitation classes for health and ecucation purposes are to be integrated in the school curriculum. The rehabilitation time frame is 15-50% of the weekly compulsory number of lessons defined for the relevant grade, depending on the type of disability. Students participate in as many rehabilitation activities as required to reduce their disadvantage resulting from disability. In this time frame, such education activities (subjects) may be planned which are necessary for each student of the class and various individual therapeutic activities planned for individuals and small groups may be performed.

The Guideline defines the tasks of health and education rehabilitation in all fields of disability by designating the frames and objectives. The following are some examples in the individual fields of disability:

  • For physically handicapped students: elimination or reduction of the functional disorder caused by impairment (speech disorder, speech defect, attention disorder, sensorimotor disorder, loss of skills, decreased psychic and/or motor speed. Group and individual kinetic education designed depending on the type and severity of the form of disease and integrated in the curriculum.
  • For visually impaired students: visual education, preservation and development of the remaining sight. Intensive kinetic development, including the development of touch and dexterity, design of the body culture, correction of gait defects (e.g. correction of hanging head, dyskinesia), application of the knowledge assisting transport and orientation in specific life situations (learning the technique of use of the white stick), use of special optical aids.
  • For hearing impaired students: finger ABC and sign language can be used as specific tools of setting up language communication. Communication with hearing people, special education tasks supporting individual integration.
  • For mentally impaired students: correction and compensation of the impaired functions; development of the knowledge of means; attainment of the learning techniques; development of social skills and (spatial and temporal) orientation skills; and formation of competence.
  • For speech impaired students: complex speech and arts therapy; development of phonemic hearing; graphomotor and visiomotor coordination. Communication training courses. Puppet therapy. Drama therapy.
  • For autistic students: design of an environment and toolkit of prosthetic character and of a special individual motivation system. Visually assisted communication system.
  • In all fields of impairment: prevention of personality disorders (correct self-perception, self-acceptance, development of the adaptation ability, establishment of appropriate social relations).

The institution is responsible for filling rehabilitation classes with specific contents and forms of activities, which may be modified within the institution – as necessary – in compliance with the current development needs of the students concerned.

Study books are provided for SEN pupils free in all grades. The list of study books in general education includes almost 300 study books and collections of exercises that are (also) recommended for SEN pupils.

Progression of pupils

The rules for progression of students participating in separate special education are all in all the same as general schools, however, SEN students may be favoured to some extent, depending on the type of disability and based on the expert opinion.

 

If the individual features, development of the pupil requires, based on the opinion of the expert committee, the head of school may exempt the pupil from assessment and qualification by marks in certain subjects, and may stipulate the use of evaluation and assessment by text instead. The head of school may exempt the pupil from evaluation and assessment in certain subjects. In this case the pupil may choose another subject in the secondary school leaving examination.  

 

Evaluation of school performance and admission in further school grades are stipulated by and described in the requirements of the school’s local curriculum. In the event a student with special education needs changes schools/school types, an expert and rehabilitation committee has to examine whether the conditions necessary for the education of the student are met by the relevant institution.

Completion of grade 8 of the basic school gives entitlement to continuing studies in upper secondary schools. Most students with physical and sensory disabilities participate in secondary school education together with other students in an integrated manner. Those pupils who due to their special education needs are unable to advance together with the other pupils mostly continue their studies in vocational schools, whereas most pupils with medium severe and slight intellectual disability continue their studies in skills development schools. Transfer from separate special education into mainstream education is possible on the basis of the proposal of an expert rehabilitation committee.

Certificates

As a rule,  students learning  in a special education or conductive education institution receive a final certificate equivalent to that of non-disabled students in mainstream schools. The marks entered in the certificate are based on the assessment of the performance of the student during the school year and are preceded normally by no special examination. The certificate includes all the favours that were provided for the pupil during the pupil’s studies.

In the event the school allows a longer time than one school year for learning the curriculum of a grade, as allowed by the law, the mid-year school report and the end-of-year certificate are issued at the half and at the end of the increased teaching period, respectively.

 

In vocational schools VET is provided for the vocational qualification included in the NVQR, and the final certificate entitles its holder to exercise the concerned vocational qualification.  

Skills development schools, transferring knowledge required for commencement of employment or starting life, indicate in the final certificate the field of activity in which the pupil  received theoretic and practical education.