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Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

As a tradition of more than 50 years,upper-secondary education (ISCED 3) in Hungary typically starts from grade 9, after the completion of the 8-grade single-structure education (i.e. primary and lower secondary, ISCED 1 and 2). Most commonly it involves 4 grades, less commonly 5 or 3 grades. As another 50-year-long tradition, Hungary has maintained the three main programmes of upper-secondary education: general secondary, vocational secondary as well as vocational education and training, however, in line with the classification, the special vocational education and the so-called Bridge Programmes (that are of a significantly smaller volume). Students completing their studies in the four- (or sometimes five-) grade general secondary or vocational secondary schools and successfully passing the secondary school leaving examination are entitled to seek admission to higher education. The three-year vocational education and training does not offer the same qualification and ends with the issuance of a certificate of one of the state-recognised qualifications listed in the National Qualification Register. It does not entitle school leavers to enter higher education. In this form of education it is possible to obtain a secondary school leaving certificate in an additional two years, which entitles the student to enter higher education.

The Hungarian name of the institutions changed.

 

From 2016

szakközépiskola

szakgimnázium

szakiskola

szakközépiskola

Speciális szakiskola

szakiskola

 

The reform of the structure and content of these programmes remains to be a key priority for vocational education policy.

After the political and economic transition in 1989, the extension of upper-secondary schooling entitling students to enter higher education was a very important education policy objective. The expansion of upper-secondary education and then of higher education also met population demands, as the newly opened market economy substantially increased the value of higher qualifications in the labour market. This way, families commonly set the goal for their children to obtain at least an upper-secondary school qualification, which significantly reduced demand for vocational education (which almost exclusively offered qualifications for blue-collar jobs). After the early 2000s, proportions barely changed for a decade. Presently, in the field of upper-secondary education, education policy aims to significantly increase the proportion of vocational education and significantly reduce the proportion of upper secondary education preparing students for tertiary education. The proportions of enrolment into the various types of schools only slightly changed until 2015; the proportion of pupils enrolled in General or vocational secondary schools has slightly decreased, and the percentage of pupils in vocational education and training marginally increased.

Enrolling into upper-secondary education institutions does not mean that students complete their studies in the given school, and particularly not that they complete their studies in the typical time frame. Students enrolling into (general or vocational) secondary schools sometimes continue their studies in adult education classes, typically in or after grade 9, or they retake the same year. Dropping out is more typical in vocational schools. Typically, institutions offer more than one upper-secondary (general secondary, vocational secondary or vocational education) programmes. The number of institutions providing only vocational training programmes is very low. In the past, general and vocational secondary school education was provided parallel in several hundreds of schools, (so-called mixed schools), but in 2015 the maintenance task of the vast majority of vocational secondary schools and vocational schools were taken over by the Ministry of National Economy from the Ministry of Human Resources. At this time most of the schools underwent “profile purifying” the general and vocational education was separated, and the schools were only allowed to continue providing one type of education.

Until 2012, the majority of students attended upper-secondary education programmes in municipality-maintained schools, but the proportion of church maintained schools and their students is also increasing. Until 2011, the proportion of private schools and their students also increased but they have been declining since that. Schools maintained by county-level local governments were taken over by the state at the beginning of 2012, and municipality operated schools were taken over as well in January 2013; the majority of agricultural vocational schools are now maintained by the Ministry for Agriculture, andin 2015, the maintenance task of the vast majority of vocational secondary schools and vocational schools were taken over by the Ministry of National Economy from the Ministry of Human Resources. The number of general secondary schools with longer (6- or 8-year-long) programmes is above average among church operated institutions. These schools are especially preferred by the middle class, as elite education institutions based on early selection. The share of privately funded vocational schools is significant. In 2016, the nationalisation of the formerly foundation maintained vocational schools has started; they are now integrated into vocational training centres established by the Ministry of National Economy.

The 1-2 grade programmes of post-secondary education (ISCED 4) were introduced in the second half of the 1990s. In these programmes students are trained for blue-collar jobs to a smaller extent, and for white collar jobs to a greater extent. The number of post-secondary vocational qualifications issued were recently somewhat higher than the number of upper secondary vocational qualifications. For this reason, i.e. that a significant portion of vocational education and training takes place at a higher (ISCED 4) level, the share of upper secondary vocational education seem to be low in international comparison, while its volume at post-secondary level is high.