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Hungary:Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

In line with the Council Recommendation on establishing a Youth Guarantee, Hungary submitted its Youth Guarantee Implementation Plan to the European Commission in December 2013 and submitted an expanded version in April 2014 in order to ensure that all young people under 25 receive a good-quality offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within four months of becoming unemployed or leaving formal education. The first phase of the programme is under the implementation process, due to be launched early 2015. Because of the heterogeneous target group, the scheme plans to offer the following opportunities for young people: job opportunities, paid traineeship, work experience placement, wage support for employers, mobility support, supporting start-ups, VET opportunities, labour market projects offered by NGOs, second-chance schools etc. Implementation will be coordinated by the Ministry for the National Economy and the National Labour Office. Implementation will be financed from national and EU (ESF) funds and, in case of four regions of Hungary, from the Youth Employment Initiative.

For instance in the framework of the Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme (EDIOP-5.2.1./ in Hungarian GINOP-5.2.1) 36 billion HUF is available for counselling and mentoring purposes in addition to work experience placement, job placement, supported employment, obtaining basic education and vocational qualifications. The local government offices from six disadvantaged regions are eligible in consortium with the Ministry for National Economy. The can apply until the beginning of 2015

Two national-level projects have been launched in the Social Renewal Operational Programme for supporting the transition from apprenticeship to employment (SROP 2.3.4) and for supporting young people in becoming entrepreneurs (SROP 2.3.6). Both projects started at the beginning of 2013. They were coordinated by the Ministry for National Economy. The former was a traineeship programme, which supported utilizing the experience gained in the dual vocational training system. It provided wage support for SMEs that undertake to employ former apprentices as paid trainees for 9 months. It had a budget of HUF 8.5 billion. The latter was a scheme supporting young people aged 18-35 becoming entrepreneurs; it provided training for acquiring and developing entrepreneurship skills and also provided start-up capital for young people with a feasible business plan. It had a budget of nearly 7 billion HUF and was expected to involve about 1500 young people. This support has been renewed and is again available from the Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme 5.2.2. (EDIOP-5.2.2./ in Hungarian GINOP-5.2.2). SMEs may apply until the end of 2014.

A scholarship (Klebelsberg Scholarship) was introduced in 2013 for students in initial teacher education in order to increase the number of graduates with a teaching degree, especially in the field of teaching sciences. The main selection criteria of awarding the monthly stipend included the need for the various subject teachers and the results of the entrance tests of applicants. Students participating in the scholarship scheme undertake to accept employment as a teacher after graduating. The call is announced annually.

The National Core Curriculum, adopted in 2012, increased the minimum level for foreign language skills to be acquired by the end of lower secondary education (grade 8) from level A1 of the CEFR to A2. The aim was to increase the significance of language learning in basic education and to make language learning more even in the period of compulsory education. The minimum level prescribed for the end of upper secondary education (grade 12) has not changed but requirements specified for the other grades have been modified. The new framework curricula for foreign language teaching take into account the modified minimum requirements. The National Core Curriculum also prescribes the languages that may be learned as a first foreign language: English, German, French and Chinese. According to the above mentioned regulations being phased in from the school year 2013/14, from the school year 2015/16 the second foreign language may be started in grade 7 at the earliest and there are no restrictions on which language to choose.

Since 2012, a Government Decree has been issued annually on the so-called national qualifications profile of school-based VET containing qualifications to be publicly funded, not funded by the state or funded up to a certain headcount. Vocational programmes fall into one of these categories upon the expert opinion of County Development and Training Committees, based on labour market needs, medium and long-term plans and economic trends.

A national-level programme,  "The Development of the Career Guidance System (SROP 2.2.2-2012)” was launched in June 2012 will run until May 2015. It involves the development and continuous updating of a national career guidance website, developing and providing training for 4000 career guidance professionals (teachers and counsellors), publishing a periodical for career guidance professionals and improving cooperation within the sector and with other sectors. It is coordinated by the National Labour Office. It has a partly EU funded budget of 2.8 billion HUF.

A national-level project (SROP 2.1.2) of the Social Renewal Operational Programme was launched for developing foreign language and IT competences of the adult population in order to improve access to lifelong learning and the employability of participants. The aim was to involve 100,000 persons in language and IT training courses offered by accredited training institutions between December 2012 and August 2014. Participants had to be over 18 and were not allowed to have another state-funded place (at school or university) at the same time. 95-98% of the tuition fee was covered by the resources; depending on the place of residence of participants (people from disadvantaged areas received a higher proportion of funding). It had a budget of 12.5 billion HUF.