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Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

The Higher Education Act obliged higher education institutions to set up their own quality assurance systems as early as in 1993, which was defined as a system of conscious and organised activities covering the whole institution, which aims at aligning the actual operation of the institution with its objectives and meeting the needs of stakeholders (students, employers, the scientific community).

The foundation of the Hungarian Accreditation Committee (HAC) in 1993 and the development of the higher education accreditation system was the first step in quality assurance. The HAC is a national body of experts facilitating the control, assurance and evaluation of the scientific quality of education, scientific research and artistic activity at higher education institutions.

In 2005, the Higher education Act specified a comprehensive system of quality development, describing the responsibilities of the administration and requiring higher education institutions to establish their internal quality assurance systems.In 2011, the Act reinforced the role of the Hungarian Accreditation Committee in quality assurance and stipulates that the HAC is to observe the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) when formulating its expert opinions. The operation of the HAC is regulated by a government decree, which also states that ensuring the quality of teaching, research or artistic activities is the responsibility of higher education institutions.

Responsible bodies

The minister responsible for education has the right to order legality checks and operates an academic supervision system. It also acts as a maintainer of state-maintained higher education institutions. The Educational Authority (Oktatási Hivatal) and the Hungarian Accreditation Committee (Magyar Felsőoktatási Akkreditációs Bizottság) supports the minister in monitoring and evaluation.

The Educational Authority has a role in the establishment and transformation of higher education institutions: it registers the institutions as well as the start and modification of their activities, records changes in its register and deregisters them. When conducting authority inspections, the Authority examines the lawful operation of registered higher education institutions and assists the Minister in legality checks. Its decisions are based on the expert opinion of the Hungarian Accreditation Committee.

The Hungarian Accreditation Committee (HAC) is a national body of experts assessing the quality of the teaching, research and artistic activities of higher education institutions. It also undertakes external evaluation and monitoring of the implementation of the quality development policies of institutions. Its policies and values are specified in its Codes of Ethics. It has been a member of the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQUA) since 2002.

The main activities of the HAC are to perform quality certification, i.e. deliver expert opinions on granting operating licence to institutions, the launch of degree programmes and the establishment of doctoral schools. It also prepares analysis and evaluation of all the Bachelor and Master programmes taught in a discipline. When evaluating the teaching, research or artistic activities of higher education institutions, it examines the personnel and facilities and evaluates the implementation of the institutional quality development policy. The evaluation is mainly based on the report and self-assessment of institutions according to pre-determined criteria and also involves a site visit. Additional ad-hoc activities include providing an expert opinion on awarding the title of university professor, providing a report on the monitoring of degree programmes or the development of institutions on request of the minister or the Educational Authority and evaluating the teaching and QA and QM systems of a higher education institution on its request.

The Committee has 20 members, 9 of whom are delegated by the minister responsible for education and the others are delegated by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, universities, churches that maintain higher education institutions, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, student unions and doctoral schools.

Approaches and methods for quality assurance

Higher education institutions are required to have their own quality management systems. However, the national quality policy only provides a framework for higher education institutions: the exact content and function of quality development programmes of institutions are not defined in central regulations. Therefore, higher education institutions have developed their quality assurance systems according to their strategic goals and organisational culture.

A variety of models of quality management systems have been applied by institutions for the development of their policy, including the ISO 9001:2000 standard, ENQA standards and TQM guidelines and principles. In recent years, in central grant programmes, several consortia of institutions have dealt with the adaptation of the EFQM model to higher education institutions.

High quality higher education is also supported by the acknowledgement of the best performing higher education institutions and faculties: the National Higher Education Excellence awards are awarded by the government. Six higher education institutions may be granted the title "outstanding higher education institution", which is for four years and is accompanied by increased state funding. It is also possible to award the following titles: research university, research faculty and college of applied research. The number of title holders is limited but one institute may hold several titles at the same time. The criteria for awarding the title is specified in a government decree and the results are made public.

The same government decree also provides for the acknowledgement and support of the best performing students, academic staff and researchers as well as talent support in the form of students’ academic associations (tudományos diákkör) and specialist student colleges (szakkolégium). Outstanding students and academic staff are supported by excellence grants.