This page was last modified on 20 December 2016, at 11:17.

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary


Religions

In terms of religion, Hungary is fairly homogenous. The 2001 census reflects that the majority of the population of Hungary admit adherence to historical churches. More than 7 million of the population belongs to one of the Christian churches: Catholic (5 559 000), Reformist (1 623 000), Evangelist (304 000). The overall ratio of those who claim themselves to belong to smaller or newer congregations or religions is only 1.1%. According to the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, out of the registered 255 religions in Hungary, there are about 150 where the number of adherents is below 100. The underlying reason is partly the increase in the range of religions available and partly the greater number of foreign citizens living in Hungary, who brought their own religion with themselves. It is true to say in general that the average age of those claiming to belong to a church or congregation is higher than the average age of the entire population. Catholics and Evangelists are more likely to live in rural areas.

The political changes of 1989-90 had major implications on church policy. That area was the first to proceed the most rapidly and the most systematically in order to bring down all barriers of the previous communist era and to create democracy and the rule of law. These measures included the termination of the state monopoly in education, the re-establishment of diplomatic relationships with the Holy See, the disbanding of the Bureau for Church Affairs without legal successor, the partial return of the church properties as well as the partial financial indemnification of churches, etc. The legislative basis for the relationship of the state and churches derives from the Constitution as well as Act C of 2011 on the Right to Freedom of Conscience and Religion, and on the Legal Status of Churches, Religious Denominations and Religious Communities.

Church is separated from the state. The state is not entitled to establishing a body for the administration and/or supervision of churches. The state has to be neutral in ideological issues. However, separation and neutrality does not rule out taking into consideration the special features of churches, which distinguish them from other civil organisations, associations or interest groups, cooperating with churches in their public benefit activities or supporting them financially or with properties, in this way promoting the implementation of basic constitutional rights.

Official and Minority Languages

In the Republic of Hungary over 97% of the population is Hungarian (Magyar) and Hungarian is the official language, but the Constitution recognises the national and ethnic minorities as constituent communities of the state. It ensures rights to foster their cultures, education in their native languages, the use of their native languages, the use of names in their native languages and their collective participation in public affairs. Act LXXVII of 1993 on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities precisely defines the concept of national and ethnic minority. According to the Act thirteen ethnic or national groups are officially recognized in Hungary (Bulgarian, Roma, Greek, Croatian, Polish, German, Armenian, Romanian, Ruthene, Serbian, Slovakian, Slovenian, and Ukrainian).

The 2001 census showed that 314 059 people of the Hungarian population belong to a national or ethnic minority. They are represented by 1827 local and 13 national minority self-governments. The data of the census show that the population of minorities with mother tongue continues to drop, with the exemption of those whose native language was claimed to be Roma or belong to some smaller ethnical minorities.

Pursuant to Act CXI of 2011 on the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights, the legal institution of the Commissioner for National and Ethnic Minority Rights ceased to exist and the related tasks were taken over by the Office of the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights in 2012.

The law on Public Education ensures the right to minority education, and the right to be educated in the mother tongue. The National Core Curriculum recognizes five main types of programs for teaching minorities: instruction in the minority language (mother tongue program), bilingual education, Hungarian as the language of instructions with minority language taught as a foreign language (language teaching program), intercultural education programs and remedial programs for Roma children.

Thus there is certain differentiation between minorities in term of access to educational institutes. The German, Slovak, Romanian and Croatian national minorities have access to a relatively wide range of mother tongue, bilingual and language teaching programs at kindergarten, single structure (primary and lower secondary) school, upper secondary school and in higher education. Serbians, Slovenians, Bulgarians and Ruthenians also have schools with mother tongue education, but due to the small number of children from these minorities, these schools are much more limited in number. The Polish, Greek, Armenian and Ukrainian national minorities do not have minority schools at their disposal; they only have chance to learn the mother tongue in language courses or so called Sunday schools, where apart from learning the minority language, they get a general overview about the culture, the traditions, etc. of the minority they belong to.

According to the new National Core Curriculum (NCC) entering into force in 2013, the minister responsible for education issues educational programmes for teaching certain study groups in need of special attention, e.g. students of national minority. Information about national minorities in Hungary will appear in all subject areas already from the first grade of basic school based on the NCC. Due to this change, the popular poetry of national minorities may be included in the local pedagogical programmes in line with the regional and local characteristics, and pupils will have more opportunities to broaden their knowledge about other cultures.

Minority theatres, research institutes, museums and community houses are important culture institutions of minorities. The government pays attention to a recently started trend during which the minorities become maintainers of educational and cultural institutions by establishing or taking over institutions. From 2003 onwards, a certain amount has been granted from the annual central budget for this process.

The Hungarian laws, regulations and procedures on immigration are harmonised with the relevant international conventions and in line with the emerging principles and practice of the common migration policy of the European Union.

In terms of international (and especially with regard illegal) migration, Hungary is a transit country, as the final destination of the immigrants is the Western-European region. However, in the past 10-15 years, as a result of the socio-economic change in the South-East European region and in the West-Balkan and owing to the ethnical conflicts in the neighbouring countries, relatively more, and mostly Hungarian nationality refugees arrived in Hungary.

Regarding access to education and participation in education, the Act on Public Education ensures the same rights for migrant students of compulsory schooling-age as for Hungarian citizens. In September 2004 in order to support migrant students’ linguistic and cultural integration, as well as their education in kindergartens and schools, the Minister responsible for education issued an intercultural pedagogy guideline, which may be implemented by schools and kindergartens.

Demographic Situation

Hungary’s territory is 93,030 square km.

In 2016, the population of the country was 9 9830485. The population of the country has been on decrease. The most intense decrease was seen during the 1980s. Natural decrease is a key factor of population loss. Since 1981, every year fewer people have been born in Hungary than died. The volume of natural decrease is rising; in the 1990s the annual volume was 33 000 on average, but since 2000 that volume rose to more than 35 000. Population loss due to natural decrease was moderated by the positive balance of international migration seen in the last two, two and a half decades. However, the positive balance of immigration in the past decade could only compensate for less than half of the volume of natural decrease. The population density is 106 person/square km in 2016. A slowly increasing trend can be seen in the last decade as regards life expectancy at birth.

Nearly 70% of the population lives in towns and urban communities, while Budapest and its agglomeration has nearly 30% of the total population. The concentration of population in Central-Hungary has further intensified in the last 10 years. In 2016 69 person/square km lived in the Southern part of Alföld (Dél-Alföld) while 3350 in Budapest.