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Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

 European, Global and Intercultural Dimension in Curriculum Development

Respect for European Values

In accordance with international agreements on human rights, children’s rights, national and ethnic minority rights and gender equality as well as the Treaty on European Union, the Basic Law of Hungary ensures equal access to education for Hungarian and European citizens. Hungary has no separate piece of legislation on the European dimension of education at the moment. However, the principles of the School Education Act of 2011 are based on traditional European values. They emphasise the pedagogical task of supporting the balanced physical, psychological and intellectual development of individuals, the need for education for harmonising individual interests and public good, the importance of preparation for an ethical, independent and responsible life as well as the efforts made for preventing social exclusion and educating the gifted. The Act provides that schools set individual requirements based on trust and empathy, paying special attention to the characteristics of the age group. As for pedagogical methods and the assessment of pupils, it recommends procedures that ensure the all-round development of pupils and comply with requirements.

Developing key competences in focus

The Core Programme of Kindergarten Education was drafted in 2012; which set out the task of kindergartens including the emotional, moral and social education of young children as well as language and general knowledge development.

The new National Core Curriculum and the related framework curricula were reviewed in 2012. In line with the recommendations of the European Parliament and the European Council it sets the aim of providing a solid base for the key competencies for lifelong learning (communication in the mother tongue and in foreign languages, mathematics, science, digital, social and civic competences, a sense of initiative and entrepreneurship, aesthetic-artistic awareness, learning how to learn); and defines the required subjects of school education.

The knowledge on Europe and the skill development in connection with European awareness are embedded in the curricula within the traditional subjects. Europe as a subject is divided in into various school subjects (Hungarian, geography, history, modern languages, arts, sciences). At cross-curricular (interdisciplinary) level the curriculum developers expect the teachers to cooperate in order to put the knowledge about Europe into context. The need and methodology of key competence development has been gaining in importance in teaching practice over recent years.

Internationalisation in measuring key competencies

At the end of the 1960’s, Hungary already joined various international evaluation projects initiated by IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) assessing the knowledge, skills and motivation of pupils. Hungary has been a regular participant in international performance evaluation in the fields of reading/literacy competence (www.PIRLS.hu) and mathematics and science competence (www.TIMSS.hu) organised by IEA. Furthermore, Hungary has been participating in the PISA study organised by the OECD which measures the literacy, mathematics and science competencies of pupils aged 15 since 2000.

International evaluations provide information on the educational system of the participating countries and provides the opportunity to plan systematic interventions; however, it cannot be used as a basis for developing individual institutions. To this end, the educational policy makers launched the competence-measuring programme in 2000 that adopted the methodologies of the international learning outcomes evaluations.

The national competence measurement assesses the literacy and mathematic competencies of every year 6, year 8 and year 10 students, according to international test development and measuring standards. New developments now focus on additional areas, therefore, in 2015, foreign language has also become part of the measuring process. Since 2008, the monitoring of individual outcomes has also become possible; thus it is now possible to evaluate the progress of a pupil from year 6 to year 8 and later to year 10. As a result of the project, institution operators and schools have direct access via the internet to the data at school or at pupil level; furthermore, parents and pupils can now access their results even at the level of individual exercises. Moreover, the schools can also download comparative data from the internet, based on which they can compare their own results with schools of similar social-cultural backgrounds. With the downloadable database and the analysis software the schools can further analyse their learning outcomes. The owner of the competence measuring, the Department of School Education Evaluations within the Office of Education supports the users in analysing data by providing seminars and trainings.

Partnerships and Networks

One of the main aims of the ERASMUS+ K2 strategic partnerships is to provide the opportunity to develop, disseminate and apply new and innovative practices and methodologies in school education.

In the projects the joint objective of the partners includes peer learning, exchange of good practices, creation of a solid base and enhancing international cooperation, the summary and dissemination of these results, as well as the development of the participants’ competencies.

Moving beyond the traditional cooperation types that are based on exchange of experience, now a new, large-scale cooperation started in 2014, focusing on product development. This creates the opportunity to go beyond educational institutions as the circle of participants, e.g. now public and private institutions working in the field of education, training or labour market can also be engaged in projects. However, regional cooperation type projects remain eligible for support, where the emphasis is on giving the chance to institutions to get an outlook beyond their immediate environment over their entire region. In 2014, 16 projects coordinated by a Hungarian partner received support (12 cooperations between schools focusing on the exchange of experience and 4 development projects), and an additional 50 institutions participated in these cooperations as partners.

In the field of school cooperation, the most successful applicants were general secondary schools. Unfortunately, only a few kindergartens submitted applications and received support.

Turkey is the most popular partner country, but also, many institutions have Italian or Polish partner organisations.

GLOBE Programme

Over 24,000 schools from more than one hundred countries participate in the GLOBE Programme (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) which was established in 1995. The objective of the programme is to enhance environmentally-conscious education by creating an experience-based relationship with nature. In the framework of the environment observation network, pupils carry out meteorological, soil and water chemistry observations in their environment. Since launching the programme, approximately 100 million measurements have been carried out by 10 million students. In this programme students not only gather data but also try to identify the reasons for poor measurement results.

Since 1999, 27 Hungarian general secondary schools have joint the GLOBE Programme. One of the first ones was the István Bibó Secondary School in Kiskunhalas that has been the core institution of the Hungarian GLOBE schools since 2008.

 Talent Point Networks

The Hungarian Genius Network (Magyar Géniusz Hálózat) consists of Talent Points that can be found both in Hungary and in the cross-border areas inhabited by Hungarians. The objective of the Talent Points is to support talented pupils, advising them and to provide them career orientation. The aim is to support pupils in recognising and enhancing their talent; therefore, they are provided with a wide range of customised information about their opportunities. The Network has over 1200 members in Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, the Ukraine and Austria. The European talent centre operated in Budapest was established in 2012 with the objective of spreading this network model to other European countries as well. The European Council for High Ability (ECHA) Accreditation Committee has accredited 14 talent centres in 13 countries, including the European Talent Centre in Budapest.

 UNESCO programmes

The objective of the Hungarian Model UN Student Association is to highlight the operation of the UN and other international organisations and bring them closer to younger generations. A so-called UNESCO working group operating within the association focuses on the operation of UNESCO. This working group, together with the Hungarian UNESCO Committee organise the so-called UNESCO competition. In this competition secondary school students compete on their knowledge of international affairs that have some relevance to the UN and UNESCO.

The UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network programme was established in 1953. Today, this international network has 9,000 educational institutions in 180 countries as members. The schools pay special attention to make pupils more aware of global issues and sustainable development as well as to improve peaceful coexistence and intercultural dialogue. In Hungary 12 schools have joined the programme (data from 2014).

ACES Network (Academy of Central European School)

The partnership network of Central- and Southern-European schools was established in 2007; bilateral and trilateral partnerships can be established within a region. In Hungary 50 schools are members of the network. By implementing join projects the programme focuses on peer learning; the target groups are secondary school teachers and pupils aged between 12 and 17. The programme’s principal is the Austrian Erste Foundation.

North-South connection programme

The aim of the two year project implemented by EuropeAid and the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to establish cooperation between European and African schools (a total of 16 European and 16 African schools are participating in the programme).

The pupils learn about global processes and trends in an interactive, experience-based project; this joint work focuses on the differences and similarities between North and South (project topics: environmental pollution and waste, nutrition and water, the situation of people living with disability, poverty). Four Hungarian general secondary schools participate in the programme. The programme also includes study tours for teachers.