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Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary


Organizational Variations

The legal regulation also allows the local authorities to run so-called complex schools that provide functions of several school types (at several ISCED levels) within one organisation. In these institutions, education is provided on the basis of joint curriculum and requirements supplemented by the specific curricula of the various school types and ISCED levels. There are 12- or 13-grade single structure schools (comprising e.g. a basic school and a general secondary school or a basic school and a secondary vocational school, or a basic school and a general secondary school and a secondary vocational school).

General cultural centres are multipurpose institutions with organisationally and professionally independent units. In addition to providing public education, such centres perform cultural, artistic, community education or sports tasks as well.

Alternative Structures

There are so-called alternative schools, which provide education and teaching with non-traditional pedagogical methods. Alternative schools (e.g. Waldorf schools) have specific framework curricula prepared by them and approved by the Minister for Education, which forms the basis of their pedagogical programme.

Operation of the overwhelming majority of basic schools in Hungary is state-maintained. Since 1990, churches, economic entities, foundations, associations and private individuals can take part, besides government agencies and local authorities, in the provision of school education. Private education, as is commonly referred to, is allowed by law to perform almost all tasks of school education. As a typical feature following from the nature of private funding, such institutions offer additional services. This may mean better resources, compensation of various disadvantages, smaller classes, customised and personalised activities, the availability of professionals of special education, etc. Private education offers an alternative for students and parents in meeting their special education-related needs and individual demands.

The founding of non-state schools is subject to the criterion that founders should certify their right to perform such activities and obtain any relevant licences certifying the registration and evidencing the legitimate operation. The issuing of an operating licence is subject to meeting the prescribed material and personal conditions, the availability of appropriate equipment, means and infrastructure, all being similar to the requirements set for state funded institutions.

In consideration for the higher quality or a wider scope of scope of services, private institutions often offer their educational services for tuition fee or training contribution. However, it is possible for a private school to conclude an agreement for its participation in the performance of school education tasks of the state. In this case, the private school also have to offer its educational services free of charge.

In the manner as provided for in the Public Education Act and the annual Budget Act, the state provides subsidy funding for the institutions of private education they have subjective right to. State subsidy is due according to the legal status of the operator, the tasks performed at the institution concerned and the number of children enrolled. There are also state grants available through tendering. The non profit sector (foundations, associations, etc.) is typically awarded greater amounts of subsidy than private entrepreneurs. State subsidies cover 60% to 70% of the costs of operation, the rest being the operator’s responsibility to provide. For schools run by churches registered in Hungary, the portion of the operating budget to be provided by the operator for other schools is also disbursed by the state, according to the agreement between the Republic of Hungary and the Apostolic Holy See.

To improve the very low level of the knowledge of foreign languages, which is an acute problem in Hungary, bilingual basic schools or classes may be established, where all (or at least 3) subjects are taught in a foreign language (English, French, German, Italian, Russian or Chinese).

Basic as well as lower and upper secondary nationality schools are intended to preserve the languages and strengthen the identity of the ethnic minorities living in Hungary. In such schools, teaching and learning takes place in the language of one of the seven Hungarian ethnic groups (Greek, Croatian, German, Romanian, Serbian, Slovakian and Slovenian), quite small in number, in all or some subjects, while for children (of ethnic origin or not) whose mother tongue is Hungarian, minority languages are taught as foreign languages. According to the Minority Act (Act CLXXIX of 2011 on National and Ethnic Minority Rights), a nationality class or study group can be launched at the request of at least 8 parents. For students less than 8 in number, language studies are organised in an extracurricular form, providing travelling teachers, if necessary.