This page was last modified on 23 December 2016, at 15:01.

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

The Structure of the Education System

Kindergarten education and care is provided for children between age 3 and entry into school. Pursuant to the new Public Education Act, kindergartens may also admit children who will turn three within six months from the admission provided that free places remain after all children aged 3 are admitted in the district. Children aged 5 and above are obliged to attend kindergarten education 4 hours a day. However, from 1 September 2014, kindergarten will be compulsory for children aged 3 and above, from which they may be exempted by the municipal clerk at the request of the parent. Kindergartens offer both day care and an education programme. Kindergarten care comprises the timeframe of fifty hours per week to be spent on the tasks related to the day care of the child and the activities containing the whole kindergarten life. The maintenance institution shall organise the development activities of children with social, learning and behavioural difficulties, and the healthcare, pedagogic habilitation and rehabilitation activities of children with special educational needs in a timeframe of eleven hours per week in the kindergarten.

Mandatory school age is between age 6 and 16. Children reaching age 6 until 31 August become school-age students on 1 September of the same year. The starting date may be postponed by not more than one year by the kindergarten, which determines whether the child is school ready. However, law allows for the children to go to school before the age of 6 if the parent requests so and the child’s development allows for it.

Basic education (ISCED 1 and 2) is provided in 8-grade single structure schools comprising primary (ISCED 1) and lower secondary education (ISCED 2). Primary education (ISCED 1) comprises grades 1 to 4, while lower secondary education (ISCED 2) comprises grades 5 to 8. However, upper-secondary schools are also allowed to offer secondary programmes comprising lower (ISCED 2) and upper secondary levels (ISCED 3), covering grades 5 to 12 or grades 7 to 12.The successful completion of grade 8 provides basic qualification. After completing basic school, students may continue their studies in an upper-secondary school: in general secondary schools, vocational secondary schools or vocational schools.

The entrance examinations to upper-secondary schools are centrally organised. Students who were not admitted to any upper-secondary school or cannot finish grade 8 but are still school-age students may participate in a “Bridge programme” which prepares them to continue studies in a vocational school.

Bridge programmes last one year. The Public Education and Vocational Education Bridge Programmes help the students in joining upper-secondary education, vocational education or entering the world of work, as well as in obtaining the knowledge required for starting an independent life. The framework curriculum of the Public Education Bridge Programme is issued by the minister responsible for education in a decree. The framework curriculum of the Vocational Education Bridge Programme is issued by the minister responsible for vocational training and adult training in a decree with the consent of the minister responsible for education, after requesting the opinion of the minister responsible for social inclusion.

In Hungary, upper-secondary level education (ISCED 3) starts typically after the 8-grade basic education (primary and lower secondary education, ISCED 1 and 2), commencing in grade 9 for more than 50 years. Most often it lasts for 4 years, although it may also last 5 or 3 years. The 3 main educational programmes following the basic education have also been unchanged for half a century: secondary schools, vocational grammar schools (called secondary vocational schools until 2016) and vocational secondary schools (called vocational schools until 2016, but until the end of the 1990’s, these schools were called vocational training schools), but according to the official classification, they also comprise the lower volume vocational school (called special vocational schools until 2016) and Bridge programmes. From among the 3 main programmes, the successful school leaving examination certificates obtained in the 4-year or 5-year secondary school and vocational grammar school programmes entitles the holder to enter higher education. The 3-year vocational secondary school qualification ends with the school leaving certificate of a state accredited vocational qualification listed in the National Qualifications Register, but such students may not enter higher education. In this school type, students may stay for 2 more years and obtain a school leaving examination certificate for entering higher education.

General secondary schools have four, six or eight – or in the case of a language preparatory grade, five, seven or nine – grades. General secondary schools provide general education and care preparing the students for the school leaving examination and for commencing higher education studies. The secondary school leaving examination is a state examination, which is also part of the entrance examination to higher education institutions.

Vocational grammar schools provides vocational school leaving examination certificate and prepares for obtaining the related vocational qualification, for entering specialist higher education, and for entering a job in a related field. It has 4 grades establishing general knowledge of upper-secondary education and vocational training grades specified in the National Qualifications Register, offering professional theoretical and practical training. In the vocational grammar schools, vocational school leaving examination may be taken in relation to the vocational qualifications listed in the National Qualifications Register, and a specific vocational qualification may be obtained.

Vocational secondary schools have five grades, of which three are vocational grades comprising the general subject training required for obtaining the given vocational qualification, as well as professional theoretical and practical training, and two other grades preparing the student for the secondary school leaving examination. In vocational secondary schools, vocational training may be performed according to the vocational training framework curriculum for the vocational qualifications listed in the National Qualifications Register. The students having obtained a state accredited vocational qualification in vocational secondary schools may decide to stay for the two other grades preparing them for the secondary school leaving examination.

 

Vocational schools prepare the students who cannot keep up with other pupils due to their special educational needs for the vocational examination in order to provide education and training for students with special educational needs. In vocational schools, vocational education is provided for the vocational qualifications listed in the National Qualifications Register – depending on the type of the special educational need – according to the vocational framework curriculum or the special framework curriculum. Further regulations concerning the preparation for the vocational examination are contained in the act on vocational training. In the vocational training schools, the number of grades is determined in the special framework curriculum.

The Public Education Act and the Vocational Training Act jointly stipulate the acknowledgement and admission of studies for students following an unconventional education path. These legal provisions improve system flexibility in upper-secondary education and allow for students to modify their career in all directions. For instance, students with vocational qualification from a vocational school have the possibility to pursue studies in a vocational secondary school in a preparation programme to pass the secondary school leaving examination. At the same time, students with secondary school leaving examination from a general secondary school may obtain an NQR vocational qualification in a programme prolonged by one year.

The 1-2-year programmes of post-secondary vocational education (ISCED 4) were launched in the second half of the 1990’s. Training is performed in a smaller volume for blue-collar, and in a larger volume for white-collar professions. In the school system, the number of post-secondary vocational qualifications provided in vocational grammar schools has exceeded the number of vocational qualifications issued in upper-secondary vocational education in the recent years. Therefore, as the major part of vocational education was lifted to a higher level, in Hungary, the ratio of vocational education at upper-secondary level is low by international standards, however, the volume of post-secondary vocational education is very high compared to the international benchmarks.Higher education institutions (universities, universities of applied sciences and colleges) offer a variety of tertiary programmes, including higher vocational education, Bachelor and Master or unified trainings, as well as doctoral programmes.  Higher education programmes are either offered as full time or part time (evening or correspondence) courses or as distance education.

Besides tertiary vocational programmes, and Bachelor and Master programmes, higher education institutions also offer post-graduate specialisation courses. Doctoral programmes (Ph.D., DLA) exist as full-time or part-time programmes. Post-graduate specialist courses are mostly part-time programmes.


Second chance programmes and adult education programmes

Second chance programmes and adult education programmes are organised for those who dropped out of full-time education without a qualification.

One such programme introduced under the new Public Education Act and Vocational Training Act is the Bridge Programme, which helps students who have not completed their lower secondary studies or performed so poorly that they were not admitted to upper-secondary education. These programmes offer targeted development with the aim of guiding students back to upper-secondary education.

Those people are allowed to take part in adult education and training who have fulfilled compulsory school attendance. In Hungary, compulsory school attendance lasts until the end of the schoolyear when the person reaches the age of 16.

Adult education programmes provide part-time education for adults who dropped out of lower secondary education or wish to acquire higher level qualification than the one they have. Literacy programmes, programmes aimed at obtaining lower secondary qualification and preparatory programmes for obtaining general secondary school, secondary vocational school or vocational school qualification are also organised. The latter prepare participants for secondary school leaving examination or vocational examination, and the participants will take the examination with the mainstream programme students on the same conditions.


Education of children and students with special education needs

The education of children with special education needs is provided either in mainstream schools or special schools according to the nature of their special needs. It is a general principle to prefer the inclusive education of children with special education needs in order to enhance their social integration. However, inclusive education can only be successful in an inclusive environment and by developing the skills indispensable for integration. Therefore, there are several professional services for the assessment and treatment of learning difficulties: e.g. health care network of nurses which supports mothers from the birth of their child and helps to discover early grave health problems. Also, the expert and rehabilitation committees examining learning abilities examine the children in need from early childhood and decide whether the children need early development, placement in a special institution, prolonged kindergarten education or other special educational care.

Children with sensory impairment and certain physical disabilities (e.g. spina bifida) require long-term special development indispensable for their successful integration. Special education institutions are set up for this purpose, which provide development adjusted to special needs and education suited to school requirements as day-schools or boarding schools. These include schools established for the blind and deaf or conductive pedagogical institutions. These institutions also serve as special education methodology centres providing in-service training courses for special needs teachers.

The development activities for children and young people with severe disabilities are provided at home or in the institution, as requested by the parent, and skills necessary for independent life are also taught.

Speech therapy services, experts of the educational counselling service, early development and care services, conductive pedagogical services, special physical education, school psychology and kindergarten psychology services are also offered for children/pupils with special education needs.

Professional service is provided in larger school districts to help children with special education needs educated in an integrated manner. Local or visiting specialists usually take care of the pupils in the school.

The System of Educational Institutions

Pre-school education is provided in kindergartens under the guidance of kindergarten teachers holding tertiary qualification. Kindergartens mostly provide full-day pre-school education with day-care. Qualified auxiliary staff (nannies) help the work of kindergarten teachers.

Basic education is provided in 8-grade single structure schools comprising primary (ISCED 1, primary phase) and lower secondary education (ISCED 2, lower-secondary phase). 6 and 8-year general secondary schools are exceptions, because in these schools education from grades 6 to 8 is performed under basic education requirements.

Upper-secondary education is performed in general secondary schools, vocational grammar schools, vocational secondary schools and vocational schools.

Basic art schools are also educational institutions, the aim of which is to develop artistic skills, to enhance artistic talent and to prepare for specialised further education. These institutions are available in parallel with public education for a low tuition fee.

Dormitories established for students of public education institutions also form part of the educational institutions. These institutions not only provide student accommodation, but serve as educational institutions; they are operated separately or by the same management of the upper-secondary school.