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Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Geographical accessibility

In 2014, 38,614 spaces were available in 736 crèches, and 37,269 children were enrolled. 95% of the places are available in institutions operated by local municipalities. Statistics show that only approximately 14% of children receive care in crèches. This is due to the fact that young children are traditionally taken care of by the family, and that the Hungarian family support system, if compared to the systems of other countries, is highly generous: state financing enables mothers to stay at home with the child until the age of 3.

In order to achieve an optimum geographical coverage, it is obligatory for local municipalities with over 10,000 inhabitants to operate a crèche. The coverage will be further improved from January 2017 onwards, when every settlement will be obliged to provide some form of care (crèche, mini- crèche or family day care facility), provided that there are at least 40 children under the age of 3, or the parents of at least five children request it.

Admission requirements and choice of ECEC institution

Children between 20 weeks and three years may be admitted by crèches or up to five years if the child is disabled. Upon enrolment, parents have to provide a certificate issued by the family paediatrician or family doctor on the fact that the health condition of the child makes it possible to attend a crèche.

If the child is over 3 but based on his physical or mental development he is not suitable for kindergarten education and the physician of the crèche does not recommend his enrolment to kindergarten, he may stay in crèche till 31 August following his fourth birthday. With the consent of the parent

  • the district nurse,
  • family paediatrician or family doctor,
  • social worker or family worker,
  • child welfare agency,
  • court of guardians

may also initiate the admission of the child by the crèche.

In addition, the specialist giving help to the rehabilitation of the disabled child may also initiate the admission of the child if the crèche is able to provide early intervention for the child concerned.

 

There is a detailed and strict regulation concerning children with disabilities.  For rehabilitation purposes the disabled child may be admitted to a crèche offering early intervention if the rehabilitation committee recommends it and the child is not a risk for his own and his peers’ health. In the course of the admission process, disabled children are admitted by the institution for a period of probation of at least 1 month. After the expiry of this period the decision on the further nursing of the child are made on the basis of the joint report of the group of professionals (physician, SEN pedagogue, nursery teacher) being in contact with the child.

Crèches may be operated:

a) as an independent crèche,

b) as a member institute of a Nursery Directorate or merged crèches, (an organisation consisting of several institutions, where every organisational unit functions as a crèche.)

c) as an independent unit of a multipurpose institute under joint control (an organisation consisting of several institutions, where some organisational units function as crèches, others perform other tasks.)

Depending on the duties to be performed the crèche may be

a) a day-time crèche,

b) a week-time (5-day) crèche

 

Age levels and grouping of children

The crèche primarily undertakes the daytime supervision and professional care of children under 3, with the objective of promoting the harmonious physical and mental development of the children taking their age and individual needs into account. The crèche may also provide early intervention for disabled children under six if it meets related material and personal conditions.

Children between 20 weeks and three years may be admitted by crèches or up to five years if the child is disabled, till 31 December in the year in which the child turns three or five if he is disabled. 

One nursery group consists of a maximum of 12 children. However, if all the children are over 2, a maximum of 14 children may be cared for in one group. If the nursery group also includes a disabled child, maximum 10 children can attend it, while in the nursery group caring for disabled children the maximum number of the children to be developed and cared for is 6. The organisation of care in crèches follows the principle of personal stability; a part of group of children (approx. 5–6 children) belong to the same care giver.

In special crèche groups providing care to children with disability, one care giver can look after up to 3 children. In family day care facilities, one care giver can only look after 2 children.

The objective is to enable the child to attend the same group in the entire duration of receiving care in the crèche. There are both homogenous and mixed aged groups in crèches. According to professional recommendations, same-age groups are more beneficial.

An additional service provided by crèches is the operation of play groups, in the framework of which children and parents can play together with some professional support.

 

Organisation of time

Pursuant to law, the crèche is open for at least 10 hours a day. The opening hours of the crèche are specified by the maintainer taking into consideration the working hours of the parents.

In order to ensure a gradual introduction to crèche, the mother can stay with the child in the crèche for a period of time (usually two weeks) to allow the child to get used to the environment. During this period, the time spent in crèche continuously grows and the time spent there by the mother decreases. Pursuant to law, children obtain care in crèches for a minimum of four hours and a maximum of twelve. 

Organisation of the Day and Week

The operator of the institution defines the duration of the summer holiday (when the crèche is closed), which can be of maximum of 5 weeks, but institutions typically only close for 2 or 3 weeks in the summer. In larger settlements, institutions take turns in closing, so there is always at least one crèche open throughout the summer. The daily routine in crèches is continuous and flexible in order to meet the needs of children and provide safety, reliability as well as opportunities for being active and learning to be independent. The daily schedule of crèches depends on the age, development level and needs of children in the groups but it is also influenced by the weather and the number of children in a group. A further aspect is ensuring emotional security and the consideration of the child’s life in his family, if possible