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Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Geographical accessibility

Local municipalities are responsible for providing kindergarten care. Currently (in school year 2015/2016), 321,012 children receive kindergarten care in 4,564 institutions with a total capacity of 379,671 spaces (which represents an utilisation rate of 84.5%).   However, the capacities and the number of children is not evenly distributed; therefore, at the local level, there might by some over- or underutilisation of capacities. (In agglomerations and in areas with higher birth rates, capacities are typically insufficient). Parallel to the reduction of the obligatory kindergarten age (three years), introduced on 1 September 2015, the Hungarian government launched development programmes aimed at creating a more balanced distribution of demand and supply of kindergarten spaces. These programmes include the reconstruction of existing buildings, the construction of additional rooms, and the construction of new institutions, or, in some cases, the termination of some kindergarten spaces.

If in a settlement there are at least eight kindergarten-aged children with permanent residence and if (based of demographic data) it can be assumed that their number will remain unchanged for at least another three years, the local municipalities must provide kindergarten care locally (if requested so by at least eight affected parents).

Geographical accessibility of kindergartens can be assessed on the basis of the estimated time to get there. Approximately one-third of children can get to the kindergarten within 5 minutes, 40% between 6 and 10 minutes, and the remaining one fourth between 11 and 20 minutes. (Typically, those living in larger towns need more time.)  

In micro villages and farms there is a bus collecting the children. In such areas maintainer associations (several villages) often operate a joint kindergarten.

Admission requirements and choice of ECEC institutions

Children may be admitted to kindergarten upon application. (Children are admitted to kindergarten after reaching the age of 3, and are in kindergarten until they start school).  Parents are obliged to enrol their children who are required to attend kindergarten under law on the date defined on the notice of the municipality (usually between the 20 April and 20 May).  

The head of kindergarten decides about admission. The obligatory enrolment of children of the age of 3 is controlled by the notary of the settlement. The parent may ask for the admission of his/her child at any time, since the admission of children is continuous throughout the year. In conformity with the principle of the free choice of kindergarten, a parent may apply for admission to any kindergarten. As a rule, however, children should be admitted at the first place in the district where they live or their parents work. Besides the principle of the free choice of kindergarten, a district system is in use. The system ensures that every child has access to kindergarten care. The local municipality defines admission districts for kindergartens; in micro villages, a district may consist of one or two settlements, while in towns it is a smaller geographical area. (Hungary’s whole territory is covered by kindergarten admission districts.) Every kindergarten is obliged to admit those children who reside habitually in its kindergarten district.

 Research data evidence that 50% of parents are in the position to choose kindergarten freely. (In towns with county rights, their rate is 85%, in Budapest, 45%, while in small settlements, it is 28 %.)  The key aspect taken into consideration when selecting a kindergarten is the distance between the home and the kindergarten. As shown by relevant data, in big towns approximately one-fifth of children are enrolled to a kindergarten outside their kindergarten admission district.

If a kindergarten that has complied with its obligations of care provision (i.e. have admitted all applicants) has remaining spaces, then it may admit further applicants.  If the number of applicants exceeds the number of children to be admitted, the head of kindergarten or, if the operator of the kindergarten operates more than one kindergarten, the operator convenes a committee to make a proposal for admission. Thus, on the basis of the capacities available at the specific locations, a proposal can be made on admission, transfer or rejection. 

 

Age levels and grouping of children

The head of kindergarten decides about the placement of the children admitted to the kindergarten into groups, taking the opinion of the parents and the kindergarten teachers into consideration.

On average, kindergartens in Hungary operate four groups; however, in this respect, kindergartens may vary significantly, Kindergarten groups are organised in a way that the number of children in one group does not exceed the maximum number defined in the Public Education Act (25 children).

The institutions may place the enrolled children in various groups. The head of kindergarten decides about the placement of the children admitted to the kindergarten into groups, taking the opinion of the parents and the kindergarten teachers into consideration. As evidenced by a 2015 survey, 39% of the kindergarten groups are homogeneous in terms of age, 17% consist of two age groups, and 43% consist of more than two age groups. 

In school year 2014/2015, the majority (81%) of kindergarten-aged children with special educational needs (SEN) received integrated care and education (7,500 children). As a result of setting the goal of integration, the number of kindergarten groups that offer care exclusively to children with special educational needs is very small.

 

Organisation of time

The maintainer of the kindergarten decides on the opening hours of the institution. As a rule, daily opening hours fall in line with the parents’ working hours.  On average, kindergartens are open 10.44 hours a day (deviation: 1.03). The daily schedule is defined in a manner that enables parents to bring and collect their children without disturbing kindergarten activities. 

During the summer holiday, when kindergartens are closed (the duration of this period may vary by operator; normally, it is 2-6 weeks), operators offer day care service in a central institution. On working days when no kindergarten education is offered (maximum 5 days per year), kindergartens provide day care at the parent’s request. 

The kindergarten year starts on 1 September of each year and lasts till 31 August. 

 

The order of the kindergarten year is specified in the local kindergarten schedule prepared by the head of kindergarten. The head of institution asks the opinion of the pre-school board and the parents’ organisation on this issue prior to making the schedule. . The schedule must specify:

•             the dates of the working days without kindergarten education,

•             the purposes for which such days are used;

•             the duration of breaks, the dates of the celebration of the national, kindergarten holidays;

•             as well as the dates of the kindergarten teachers’ meetings,

•             parents’ meetings,

•             teacher office hours

•             open doors days

Organisation of the day and week

Kindergarten education is provided within the framework of activities that are required for the child’s education and include kindergarten life in its entirety. During the opening hours, kindergarten teachers offer education to children in each group, with daily overlapping periods of one hour per kindergarten teacher and two hours per group. 

Kindergarten teachers prepare the weekly and daily schedule of their kindergarten groups in accordance with the principles of the educational programme and the Organizational and Operational Rules of the kindergarten. The schedule contains the plans for differentiated activities that may be performed parallel. Kindergarten teachers organise group activities of gradually increasing duration (5-35 minutes) that improve the children’s cooperative skills and task orientated attitude. The daily schedule falls in line with the various activities and the children’s individual needs, while taking into consideration local customs and demands. Regularity, along with recurring aspects, offer emotional stability to the children.

In terms of pedagogy, the schedule is continuous and flexible, and takes the key role of play into account.