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Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Types of institutions

The National Qualification register developed in 1993 included a high number ofISCED 4 trainings, which could be acquired (within the education system) after taking the secondary school leaving examination, typically in a one-, or two-year programme. These mainly included technician or manager type training. Currently in the full-time vocational training almost the same number of certificate of vocational qualifications is handed out on the upper secondary and post-secondary level, in 2013 both numbers were between 20 and 23 thousand.

Postsecondary vocational education is offered in vocational secondary schools; the duration of the program is one or two years after secondary school leaving examination. If the program is in the same sector as in the previously obtained training, the duration is one year, if it focuses on a different sector, or if the student attended general secondary school before, it lasts two years. Most vocational secondary schools, in which students learn from 9th to 12th grade, offer vocational training programmes from the 13th grade, but there are a few schools that do not offer this. There are a few schools – and these are mostly operated by foundations or maintained by the local authorities in the capital – which only have a grade for vocational training and no grade for preparing for the secondary school leaving examination.

The majority of vocational schools are state-maintained. Over 60 vocational schools are now maintained by the Ministry for Agriculture, and the vast majority of vocational secondary schools and vocational schools were taken over by the Ministry of National Economy in 2015; they are now integrated into 44 vocational training centres.

Geographical accessibility

There are more than 600 vocational secondary schools in Hungary, but in terms of the total number of units where their tasks are being carried out (member institutions) there are more than 900 schools. Most of these offer some kind of post-secondary programme. At the same time, however, the number of post-secondary programmes is about 100, and even the largest vocational secondary schools do not launch more than 5-10 post-secondary courses. The variety is only wider in county towns and in the larger cities, where students can learn the trades of most trade groups, although the variety of offered trades is not complete in these cities, either. Therefore, students who would like to learn a specific trade, and do not satisfy with a similar trade with only one or two different modules, often have to commute, or live in a dormitory.

Entrance requirements and choice of school

Secondary school leaving examination is required for the admission to post-secondary training. Students can enrol in a post-secondary programme after completing either general or vocational secondary school. Certain trades require aptitude and health tests.

Post-secondary programmes are typically launched for students taking the school leaving examination in the same school. They are the ones who account for the largest part of the students, but students are admitted from other schools as well. Since most students from the last grade of vocational secondary schools choose to continue their studies in tertiary education, and there are also students who change their track of career, classes on post-secondary level have only a small number of students, and because of the low number of applicants the previously announced programmes often cannot be launched. The institution has the right to organize an entrance examination, but we do not have any information of such examinations. Based on the documents submitted together with the application, it is the right of the school director to decide about the admission.  

 

Age groups and grouping of students

Students studying in post-secondary education are at least 18 years old (this is the minimum age for taking a school leaving examination), students studying in a full-time programme are at least 25 years old. The typical age is between 19 and 21.

Typically only 8-10 students can be admitted to a training programme in one trade. In this situation, a class consists of students learning at least two trades, who learn together only in their common lessons – in the case of not related trades, maybe for only some hours a week. Only in the most popular trades and only in the capital and in larger cities can full classes be launched (with minimum 20-24 members). There is no other method of grouping students.

 The schedule of the school year

The schedule of the school year is determined by the minister in charge of education in a decree for each school year and it applies to all schools and to all school maintaining organisations on a mandatory basis. Based on this centrally established schedule the schools are authorised to set out the local schedule of the given school year, which is laid out in the school’s work plan. Decision on this is made by the school management but the school board, the parents’ organisation and the students’ government also have a right to comment on it.

The dates of the working days without teaching (the number of which is regulated by the Minister’s decree), along with the purposes for which such days are used; the durations of the breaks, the dates of the anniversary/commemoration days prescribed by law and those specific to the given school; the dates of the celebration of the national and school holidays; the dates of the student assemblies as well as the dates of the teachers’ meetings must be specified in the local schedule of the school year. The school and the student hostel must mutually notify one another of the adopted local schedule of the given school year.

Schools must organise their work in the framework of school years split into two semesters (terms). The first and last school day of each school year is always determined by the Minister’s relevant decree. As a general rule, the school year starts in schools on the 1st day or on the 1st work day of September every year and it is finished on the 15th of June or, if that is not a workday, on the last workday preceding 15 June every year. The decree sets out the actual number of school-days (it is 182 days in the 2016/2017 school year) and it specifies that the teachers’ body may use six working days without teaching for various pedagogical purposes, the programme of one of which may be decided on by the students’ government. The decree sets out the dates of the autumn, winter and spring breaks. Under certain conditions schools may depart from this but they cannot modify the starting and closing dates of the school year. The decree also specifies the dates of the vocational school leaving examinations.

According to a central regulation, the school consists of five-day school weeks. Saturdays and Sundays are resting days with no classes held. Students are also entitled to resting days, with no classes, on public holidays as well. The last day of the school year must be followed by a summer vacation of at least 30 contiguous days. Schools are open on all weekdays throughout the calendar year even during teaching holidays and the summer vacation as well, when an administrative stand-by type of work schedule is adopted. At the request of the school board and the students’ government - with the agreement of the organisation maintaining the school - the school weeks may be organised on six days a week as well, when the school days include Saturdays as well. With the school maintaining organisation the principal may also order the organisation of six-day school weeks but the six days a week work schedule is not typically adopted.

Teaching holidays must be provided for students at least three times a year, with two teaching holidays comprising at least six days, and one break consisting of at least four days in a row. In the vocational training grades at least 30 days of teaching holidays must be provided for students participating in practical training with student contracts. Student contracts are rare in post-secondary education, because in Hungary students contract are only used in connection with blue-collar jobs, examples include car mechanic and beautician, where student contracts are typical even at postsecondary level. A period of at least 10 days must be provided for the students for preparation before the vocational/trade examination.

The weekly and the daily timetable

All students in post-secondary education are above 18 years. For them, the number of vocational theoretical classes must not exceed seven classes a day and the total number of vocational theoretical and vocational practical classes must not exceed eight classes a day. Education is from Monday to Friday, except for some special cases. Classes as well as extracurricular activities must be separated by breaks for the students. The regime of classes and breaks and the time of the beginning of the school day are set out in the School Rules. The first school hour – class – may not be started by more than 45 minutes earlier, but this requires the consent of both the parents’ organisation and that of the students’ government. The breaks between classes are usually 10 minutes, sometimes 15-20 minutes in length. If the daily practical training time exceeds - and it usually exceeds - four and a half hours, one break of a minimum of 30 consecutive minutes must be provided for the students.

On the post-secondary level in most cases the school provides the practical education; internship at companies is rare and is limited to only few trades (e.g. car mechanic, beautician).

Schools may organise extracurricular activities as well, however, it is not typical on this training level, although the activities organised by the school – e.g. sports circle, drama circle – are open to students studying in post-secondary courses.


A typical schedule of a 5-day working week


Extracurricular activities

Classes in the morning (from - until)

Lunch break

Classes in the afternoon (after lunch)

Extracurricular activities

Monday to Friday

Optional 7.15-8.00 a.m.

8.00 a.m. - 2.00 p.m. (it may be started at 7.15 a.m. and it may be ended at 1.00 p.m. or at 3.00 p.m.)

1 hour between 12.00 a.m. and 2.00 p.m.

Optional, 1.00/2.00 - 2.00/3.00 p.m.

Optional, 2.30 - 6.00 p.m.