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Hungary:Organisation and Governance

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

The Fundamental Law of Hungary declares the freedom of conscience and religion, the freedom of expression, freedom of scientific research and teaching, the right of national minorities to preserve their cultural identity and to learn in their mother tongue. It declares that all Hungarian citizens have the right to education, and the state guarantees this right to all of its citizens by providing free and compulsory basic education (ISCED 1+2), free and generally available upper-secondary education (ISCED 3), and higher education available to every person according to his or her abilities.

After 2010, the governance and administration of education and training became more centralised. The Parliament adopted new education acts in 2011 – the Act on Public Education (Act CXC of 2011), the Act on Higher Education (Act CCIV of 2011) and the Act on Vocational Training (Act CLXXXVII of 2011). These Acts have significantly transformed the organisation, maintenance, financing and governance of education.

Public Education

The new Public Education Act reversed tendencies of strong decentralisation in school maintenance and curricular regulation for Hungarian school education. In 2013 a central school maintenance institute (Klebelsberg School Maintenance Centre) and the school disctricts operated by it took over the organisation of basic and upper-secondary education from the local municipalities. Kindergartens continue to be fully maintained by municipalities. However, in addition to the state bodies, churches, economic entities, foundations, associations, municipalities of minorities or private individuals may also establish public education institutions. Children aged between 3 and 16 are obliged to take part in education.

Vocational education and training

The Act on Vocational Education and Training (VET) strengthened the dual vocational education and training, and practical training has gained more emphasis. The main programmes of VET last for 3, 4 or less often, for 5 years. Successful completion of a 5-year vocational upper secondary educational programme with school-leaving examination entitles the student to enter higher education. The 3-year vocational training ends by issuing the certificate of state-accredited vocational qualification contained in the National Qualifications Register, and it does not entitle the holder to enter higher education.

Up to 2012, the majority of students in secondary vocational programmes studied in institutions maintained by municipalities. The schools maintained by the county municipalities were taken over by the state in 2012, while the schools maintained by the towns in January 2013, and the majority of the agricultural VET schools are maintained by the Ministry of Agriculture. In 2015, the vocational education and training maintained by the state was handed over from the Ministry of Human Resources to the Ministry for National Economy. In 2016, the VET schools maintained by foundations were started to be centralised, integrated into the VET centres established by the Ministry for National Economy.

The sectoral governance and administration of general education belong to the Ministry of Human Resources (in addition to education, culture, social issues, healthcare, youth and sports are also included), while VET and adult education are subject to the competence of the Ministry for National Economy.

Higher education

The objective of national higher education is to serve the common good by handing over competitive knowledge, to ensure the intellectual and economic development of the nation, to provide transparent, competitive theoretical and practical training, to perform scientific basic and applied research, innivation, as well as to train the youth for education and research. Higher education is regulated by a sectoral act, amended by government decrees on enforcement. These contain the major requirements and rules related to the operation of higher education. Several other government decrees and minister’s decrees establishing partial rules are related to these regulations. The higher education institutions are independent, and their independence principally covers the educational, scientific and research activities. The government and the minister responsible for higher education play key roles in the sectoral governance of higher education, performing tasks of organisation, development and legal compliance control, as well as exercising the rights of maintaining the state-owned higher education institutions.

Hungarian higher education institutions may be established independently or jointly with other license holders by the Hungarian state, national municipality of nationalities, ecclesiastical legal entities, business entities with registered seat in Hungary, foundation, public foundation or organisation performing religious activities registered in Hungary, and in cases specified by law, by the body exercising the rights of founding and maintaining the private higher education institution operated with regular international support. The party exercising the rights of foundation shall perform the tasks related to the maintenance of the higher education institution. The higher education institute is established by state accrediting subject to the scope of the parliament. The Minister of Human Resources is responsible for the sectoral governance of higher education. Adult education

Pursuant to the preamble of Act LXXVII of 2013 on Adult Education, the objective of adult education is “that the persons living in Hungary could meet the challenges of economic, cultural and technological development, could join the world of work successfully, could be successful in their lives, improve the quality of their lives by the help of adult training and education, the organisation of professional, language and supported trainings shall be improved, the quality of their curricula and the control of their implementation shall be strengthened”.

Adult learning is organised in two sectors. Adult education is used for school-organised education of adults. Since this activity is basically organised in public education institutions, it is regulated by the act on public education (Act CXC of 2011). Education of adults in higher education is subject to the scope of the higher education act (Act CCIV of 2011). The term adult training refers to the organisation of adult learning provided outside the school system. It is regulated by the effective adult training act (Act LXXVII of 2013). The function of adult education and adult training in Hungary is basically dual:

  • on the one hand, it serves the establishment of training providing second chance (so-called replacement function, for example it may replace the missing primary school qualification and/or the first vocational qualification),
  • and on the other hand, it serves the obtaining of higher school attainment levels or vocational qualifications, as well as the implementation of continuing vocational education and training.