This page was last modified on 3 April 2017, at 10:07.

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

The government re-named and re-structured VET institutions as of September 2016. The names of all three types of VET programme have been changed: secondary vocational schools (ISCED 344-454) became vocational grammar schools (szakgimnázium); vocational schools (ISCED 353) became vocational secondary schools (szakközépiskola), while special vocational schools that train students with special needs are now called vocational schools (szakiskola).

The new vocational secondary school has a structure of 3+2 years. In the optional +2 years learners can automatically continue their studies in the same school for a general education programme leading to the upper secondary school leaving exam, which is the entry requirement to higher education.

As regards the 4+1 year vocational grammar schools, students now get a certificate that entitles them to take up certain jobs on passing the upper secondary school leaving exam in a vocational subject at the end of the fourth year.

2015

The Hungarian Qualifications Framework, compliant with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), has been developed and the referencing and self-certification report of the Hungarian Qualifications Framework was approved by EQF Advisory Group in February 2015. A 2012 decree of the Hungarian government stipulates the number of levels in the National Qualifications Framework (8 levels) and the respective level descriptions. The National Coordination Point, located in the Educational Authority, has been in charge of coordination and development.

A new project was launched under the title ofDeveloping organisational and financial models for including non-formal sector qualifications in National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF-IN) lasting for 36 months involving 7 countries (Poland, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, Ireland, Scotland and Hungary). The main target of NQF-In is to help decision-makers by providing evidence-based factual information in order to develop organisational mechanisms that can channel non-formal qualifications into national qualification frameworks. The project examines the experiences of other European countries in the practice of linking qualifications attainable in various non-formal training programmes to the levels of the national qualification frameworks. An intended result of the initiative is to design a methodology that is applicable to Central European context. By sharing experiences, the project supports the decision-makers and governments of the participating countries so that they could link non-formal qualifications to their national qualification frameworks. The above-mentioned National Coordination Point is responsible for Hungary’s participation in the NQF-IN project.

2013/14

"Bridge Programmes": a type of formal, school-based education, introduced in September 2013, which provides assistance for pupils poorly performing in basic (single structure, ISCED 1+2) education and offers a chance to those unable to complete their lower secondary studies to continue their studies in upper secondary education. These short programmes are offered by vocational schools at ISCED 3.

  • Pupils below the obligatory schooling age (16 years), who completed basic education, but were not admitted to an upper secondary school, can continue their studies in the Bridge 1 programme. Bridge 1 provides them with the fundamental skills and competencies that are necessary for the continuation of studies.
  • If a pupil below the obligatory schooling age (16 years) has not completed basic education, but completed a minimum of six grades of the eight-grade basic education by the age of 15, their basic school initiates their admission to the Bridge 2 programme. The Bridge 2 programme prepares pupils for vocational training. The aim of the programme is to increase motivation for learning and developing the skills required by an occupation. It ends in a final examination including a vocational examination. Upon completion, students receive a certificate proving the accomplishment of basic education; if passing the vocational examination, students also receive a certificate for partial vocational qualification.

The Vocational Training Act (adopted in 2011) introduced a three-year vocational training system with reinforced dual elements, which provides practical training (in addition to theoretical classes) from the first grade of vocational school onwards. It is currently phased in and is applicable for students who entered vocational school (grade 9) in September 2013 and 2014. It replaced a previous 2+2 structure (a two-year general and pre-vocational education followed by a two-year vocational training). Practical training is mainly provided at businesses instead of in-school practical training facilities. It is now possible to start apprenticeship at businesses as early as from grade 9 (instead of grade 10), on condition that students can only train in workshops operated by businesses only for training and not for production. In addition to businesses, also the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry now plays a key role in organising practical training. In the 2013/14 school year, about 48 000 students participated in workplace-based vocational training and the figure is planned to be increased by 20 000 students in the following years through cooperation with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

The structural changes have been complemented by content development: the revision of the National Qualifications Register (reducing the number of training programmes but broadening their scope to enhance employability), the development of new VET framework curricula as well as changes in the examination system (practical examination is now compulsory for all professions). The Act provides more opportunities for mobility among various forms and levels of training programmes than before. The aim is to bring vocational training closer to the world of work and to increase the employability of students.

The Adult Education and Training Act came into force in July 2013. It allows for the improvement of organising training courses, enhancing the quality of their content and reinforcing their supervision. It introduces the following changes:

  • In case of publicly funded vocational and foreign language training not leading to state acknowledged qualifications, vocational programme requirements and language programme requirements are developed (similarly to the programme and examination requirements of training leading to state acknowledged qualifications, listed in the National Qualifications Register) and their register is established in order to make adult training more regulated and transparent.
  • The accreditation system has been replaced by a licensing procedure.
  • Supervision of training providers becomes more important. The legality and content of their activities are checked on site by authorities every two years. Additionally, all training providers regulated by the Act as well as the implementation of their ongoing training courses may be checked at any time through the new documentation system.
  • The foundations of a career tracking system for the sector are also laid down.

2011

The European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) is a European tool established to create a European credit system specific to VET and in this way promote learner mobility. The ECVET National Coordination Point was established in 2011 and now operates in the National Labour Office. The National Team of ECVET Experts has been set up by the Tempus Public Foundation. ECVET is not yet widely used by schools; it is mainly used by those participating in European mobility programmes.

The European Quality Assurance Reference Framework in Vocational Education and Training (EQAVET) was set up by member states, social partners and the European Commission to promote European collaboration in developing and improving quality assurance in VET. The National Reference Point of Hungary for the EQAVET network is located in the Directorate for VET and Adult Education of the National Labour Office. The "Integrated VET Quality Assurance Framework" of Hungary, compliant with the EQAVET, was developed in the project titled “Content and Quality Development of Training” (SROP 2.2.1.).