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Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

2016

From 2017 the government will take over the operation of all achools. This is the continuation of a reform started in 2013 (see below).

2015

In May 2015 the age limit for enrolling in formal education was raised from 21 to 25 years.

An annual foreign language assessment of all pupils learning English or German as a first foreign language was introduced in June 2015 in grades 6 and 8. The assessment is organised by the Educational Authority and will test the reading comprehension of pupils. The aim is to obtain data on the effectiveness and efficiency of foreign language teaching.

School development plans: From 2015, each school is obliged to prepare a development plan on the basis of pupil-level and school-level data derived from the National Assessment of Basic Competences. School heads are to prepare the development plans after consulting the teaching staff and submit it to their maintainer until June 2015. The maintainer will regularly check if the institutional development plan is observed.

In accordance with the Early School Leaving Strategy, the School Education Act was amended in January 2015 to include the definition of pupils at risk of dropping out and to establish and operate an early warning and pedagogical support system.  Some elements of the early warning system are already in place – e.g. registration of kindergarten children and pupils in the central education information system with a personal identification code, the annual National Assessment of Basic Competences and a well developed and regulated assessment system of school readiness – but they have to be integrated in a comprehensive system.

2014

A School Education Strategy, adopted in November 2014, has been developed for the period of 2014-2020, with fields of intervention such as inclusive education, the teaching of heterogeneous groups of pupils, reducing the rate of early school leavers and supporting the school success of vulnerable groups.

The government adopted the Early School Leaving Strategy (Mid-term Strategy Against School Leaving Without Qualification) in November 2014. It is a comprehensive strategy based on cross-sectoral cooperation and integrated interventions on the levels of individual pupils, institutions and the education system. The Strategy will mainly be implemented through the measures of the Human Resources Operational Programme and the Economic Innovation Operational Programme. It includes preventive measures (e.g. expansion of high quality ECEC, flexible educational pathways, initial education and continuous professional development of teachers), intervention measures (e.g. early warning system, whole school approach, focus on disadvantaged locations, extracurricular activities, all-day school, improving cooperation with parents) and compensation measures (e.g. developing the offer of and access to “second chance” programmes, Youth Guarantee programmes).

Inspectorate: a centralised external pedagogical evaluation of teachers, kindergarten teachers, school and kindergarten heads and institutions (kindergartens, basic and upper secondary schools) was introduced in 2014. It is under the responsibility of the minister responsible for education and is organised by the Educational Authority with the help of the county level government offices. Each school/kindergarten (public, private and denominational) is inspected every five years. The inspection is supportive; no sanctions follow it in case of weaknesses.

A centralised subject assistance and consultancy (professional support for teachers) for schools and kindergartens was introduced in 2014. It is provided by county-level pedagogical institutions under the professional supervision of an agency of the ministry responsible for education. It assists institutions with analysing their activities and documents, subject related and general teaching methodology, selecting textbooks and teaching materials and improving their internal evaluation. It also gives recommendations on the professional development of individual teachers based on lesson observation.

An annual foreign language assessment of pupils learning in grades 6 and 8 of bilingual (CLIL) schools was introduced in 2014. In 2015 it will also include grade 10 students. The aim is to obtain data on the effectiveness of language teaching offered by CLIL schools and to ensure its quality. If schools wish to continue to offer CLIL, they have to ensure that a certain proportion of their students achieve a certain level of foreign language competency in the grades assessed (level A2 of CEFR in grade 6, B1 in grade 8, B2 in grade 10).

2013

In January 2013, the maintenance of public education institutions (with the exception of kindergartens) was taken over by the state. The Government established Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre for the maintenance of these institutions. It is a central authority of the ministry responsible for education and has country-wide competence through district-level units. By maintaining schools, the state now finances the salaries of teachers and staff directly supporting teaching as well as the related costs of materials. It is also in charge of pedagogical services (speech therapy, education counseling services etc.). Municipalities, on the other hand, continue to operate their schools’ infrastructure and bear the related costs, except for smaller municipalities (with a population of less than 3000), which handed that over to the state too. The aim of the measure was to break the link between the performance of schools and the wealth of municipalities maintaining their schools.

A teacher promotion scheme was introduced in September 2013, which (as opposed to the earlier remuneration system) links teacher salaries not only to qualifications (degrees) and the number of years spent in the profession but also to the evaluation of the teacher’s work. Qualification procedures, assessing teacher performance have started in 2014. The new scheme is accompanied by a gradual pay rise for teachers between 2013 and 2017. The measure aims at remedying the long-standing problems of low remuneration and social respect of teachers.

The Public Education Act introduced Moral Education and Moral and Religious Education ascompulsory subjects in 2013 in grades 1, 5 and in grade 7 at six-grade secondary schools. The subjects will be phased in to cover all grades. The choice between the two is ensured for pupils in every grade. The content of Moral Education is regulated by the National Core Curriculum and the Framework Curricula in line with the Act on Public Education stating that “ideological information shall be communicated comprehensively and in an objective manner, respecting the religious and ideological belief of children/students, parents and teachers throughout the educational process”. Churches involved in teaching Moral and Religious Education have the right and responsibility to define its content.

In September 2013, all pupils in grade 1 received textbooks free of charge. Under the Public Education Act, the provision of free textbooks is phased in to cover all grades of basic education (grades 1-8). Thus free textbooks provided previously as needs-based support is now gradually becoming universal in primary and lower secondary education.

A new National Core Curriculum phased in from September 2013, and the related detailed framework curricula of the various school types and school subjects provide a new framework for the content of school education. They define the content of learning to be passed on, the shared values, deliverables as well as skills and competence requirements. They are accompanied by new textbooks (printed and digital), which are tested by 126 schools in the 2014/15 school year.

2012

In the 2012/13 school year, the Act on Public Education introduced community service for upper secondary school students as an obligatory extracurricular activity. From 2016, only students who undertake 50 hours of community service can obtain a secondary school leaving certificate. The Act defines community service as social or environmental activity carried out individually or in a group to the benefit of the local community, within an organised framework and with pedagogical support. The aim is to raise social awareness, improve the self-confidence and various skills and competences of students and provide an opportunity for career guidance. Community service relies on the cooperation of schools with other organisations (municipalities, NGOs, churches, museums, libraries etc.) as students usually perform community service in these organisations – e.g. in the fields of healthcare, welfare, environment or nature protection. Implementation is coordinated and supported by the Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development, which provides guidelines, information, best practice examples and a partner search facility on a dedicated website and regularly organises conferences, workshops as well as an accredited training course for teachers.

Daily PE classes were introduced in a phasing in system in the school year 2012/13, which means that every school day pupils have at least one 45 minute PE class. The grades covered are grades 1,2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 in the school year 2014/15. This new measure significantly raises the number of PE classes in upper grades. According to the law, two classes out of five can be dedicated to alternative forms of physical activity, such as dancing, or other forms specified by the the framework curricula. Pupils can also fulfil these two classes out of five by doing extracurricular sports activities in sports clubs.